2.6 gene transfer; in particular, 18% of

2.6 GENOME PLASTICITY AND EVOLUTION OF ESCHERICHIA COLI
Like all life forms, new strains of E. coli evolve through the natural biological processes of mutation, gene duplication, and horizontal gene transfer; in particular, 18% of the genome of the laboratory strain MG1655 was horizontally acquired since the divergence from Salmonella. E. coli K-12 and E. coli B strains are the most frequently used varieties for laboratory purposes. Some strains develop traits that can be harmful to a host animal. These virulent strains typically cause a bout of diarrhea that is often self-limiting in healthy adults but is frequently lethal to children in the developing world. (Futadar et al., 2005). More virulent strains, such as O157:H7, cause serious illness or death in the elderly, the very young, or the immunocompromised.
The genera Escherichia and Salmonella diverged around 102 million years ago (credibility interval: 57–176 mya), which coincides with the divergence of their hosts: the former being found in mammals and the latter in birds and reptiles. (Wang et al., 2009). This was followed by a split of an Escherichia ancestor into five species (E. albertii, E. coli, E. fergusonii, E. hermannii, and E. vulneris). The last E. coli ancestor split between 20 and 30 million years ago.
The long-term evolution experiments using E. coli, begun by Richard Lenski in 1988, have allowed direct observation of genome evolution over more than 65,000 generations in the laboratory. For instance, E. coli typically do not have the ability to grow aerobically with citrate as a carbon source, which is used as a diagnostic criterion with which to differentiate E. coli from other, closely, related bacteria such as Salmonella. In this experiment, one population of E. coli unexpectedly evolved the ability to aerobically metabolize citrate, a major evolutionary shift with some hallmarks of microbial speciation.
2.7 INCUBATION PERIOD
The time between ingesting the STEC bacteria and feeling sick is called the “incubation period”. The incubation period is usually 3–4 days after the exposure, but may be as short as 1 day or as long as 10 days. The symptoms often begin slowly with mild belly pain or non-bloody diarrhea that worsens over several days. HUS, if it occurs, develops an average of 7 days after the first symptoms, when the diarrhea is improving.

2.7.1 DISCOVERY OF ANTIBIOTICS
• History of antibiotics – 1
19th century:Louis Pasteur & Robert Koch
• History of antibiotics – 2
Plant extracts
– Quinine (against malaria)
– Ipecacuanha root (emetic, e.g. in dysentery)
Toxic metals
– Mercury (against syphilis)
– Arsenic (Atoxyl, against Trypanosoma)
• Dyes
– Trypan Blue (Ehrlich)
– Prontosil (azo-dye, Domagk, 1936)
• History of antibiotics – 3
Paul Ehrlich
• started science of chemotherapy
• Systematic chemical modifications
(“Magic Bullet”) no. 606 compound = Salvarsan (1910)
• Selective toxicity.
• Developed the Chemotherapeutic Index
• History of antibiotics – 4
Penicillin- the first antibiotic – 1928• Alexander Fleming observed the
killing of staphylococci by a fungus (Penicillium notatum)
• observed by others – never exploited
• Florey & Chain purified it by freeze-drying (1940) – Nobel prize 1945
• First used in a patient: 1942
• World War II: penicillin saved 12-15% of lives
• History of antibiotics – 5
Selman Waksman – Streptomycin (1943), was the first scientist who discovered antibiotic active against all Gram-negatives for examples; Mycobacterium tuberculosis
– Most severe infections were caused by Gram-negatives and Mycobacterium
tuberculosis, extracted from Streptomyces – extracted from Streptomyces
– 20 other antibiotics include. neomycin, actinomycin
2.8 CHARACTERISTICS OF ANTIBIOTICS
According to the Oxford Dictionary, the term Antibiotics encompasses medicines (such as penicillin or its derivatives) that inhibit the growth of or destroys microorganisms. Antibiotics are naturally occurring substances that exhibit inhibitory properties towards microbial growth at high concentrations. (Zaffiri, et al., 2012).
-Antibiotics are selective in their effect on different microorganisms, being specific in their action not only against genera and species but even against strains and individual cells. Some of these agents act mainly on gram-positive bacteria, while others inhibit only gram-negative ones.
-Some antibiotics are produced by some organism, from different strains of penicillin.
-Bacteria are sensitive to the antibiotic which enable them to developed resistance after contact, for several periods.

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2.9 ROLE OF ANTIBIOTICS
Based on the clinical use of antibiotics, it may appear that these compounds play a similar role as microbial weapons in nature, yet this seems unlikely due to the fact that the concentrations used in the clinical setting are significantly higher than that produced in nature (Fajardo et al., 2008). Due to experimental evidence, it makes more sense to see antibiotics as small, secreted molecules involved in cell-to-cell communication within microbial communities.
(Martinez, 2008). Diverse Studies have been conducted in which different antibiotics and antibiotic-like structures were administered to different bacterial species at levels below the compounds minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC). (Fajardo et al., 2008). that was

2.6 GENOME PLASTICITY AND EVOLUTION OF ESCHERICHIA COLI
Like all life forms, new strains of E. coli evolve through the natural biological processes of mutation, gene duplication, and horizontal gene transfer; in particular, 18% of the genome of the laboratory strain MG1655 was horizontally acquired since the divergence from Salmonella. E. coli K-12 and E. coli B strains are the most frequently used varieties for laboratory purposes. Some strains develop traits that can be harmful to a host animal. These virulent strains typically cause a bout of diarrhea that is often self-limiting in healthy adults but is frequently lethal to children in the developing world. (Futadar et al., 2005). More virulent strains, such as O157:H7, cause serious illness or death in the elderly, the very young, or the immunocompromised.
The genera Escherichia and Salmonella diverged around 102 million years ago (credibility interval: 57–176 mya), which coincides with the divergence of their hosts: the former being found in mammals and the latter in birds and reptiles. (Wang et al., 2009). This was followed by a split of an Escherichia ancestor into five species (E. albertii, E. coli, E. fergusonii, E. hermannii, and E. vulneris). The last E. coli ancestor split between 20 and 30 million years ago.
The long-term evolution experiments using E. coli, begun by Richard Lenski in 1988, have allowed direct observation of genome evolution over more than 65,000 generations in the laboratory. For instance, E. coli typically do not have the ability to grow aerobically with citrate as a carbon source, which is used as a diagnostic criterion with which to differentiate E. coli from other, closely, related bacteria such as Salmonella. In this experiment, one population of E. coli unexpectedly evolved the ability to aerobically metabolize citrate, a major evolutionary shift with some hallmarks of microbial speciation.
2.7 INCUBATION PERIOD
The time between ingesting the STEC bacteria and feeling sick is called the “incubation period”. The incubation period is usually 3–4 days after the exposure, but may be as short as 1 day or as long as 10 days. The symptoms often begin slowly with mild belly pain or non-bloody diarrhea that worsens over several days. HUS, if it occurs, develops an average of 7 days after the first symptoms, when the diarrhea is improving.

2.7.1 DISCOVERY OF ANTIBIOTICS
• History of antibiotics – 1
19th century:Louis Pasteur & Robert Koch
• History of antibiotics – 2
Plant extracts
– Quinine (against malaria)
– Ipecacuanha root (emetic, e.g. in dysentery)
Toxic metals
– Mercury (against syphilis)
– Arsenic (Atoxyl, against Trypanosoma)
• Dyes
– Trypan Blue (Ehrlich)
– Prontosil (azo-dye, Domagk, 1936)
• History of antibiotics – 3
Paul Ehrlich
• started science of chemotherapy
• Systematic chemical modifications
(“Magic Bullet”) no. 606 compound = Salvarsan (1910)
• Selective toxicity.
• Developed the Chemotherapeutic Index
• History of antibiotics – 4
Penicillin- the first antibiotic – 1928• Alexander Fleming observed the
killing of staphylococci by a fungus (Penicillium notatum)
• observed by others – never exploited
• Florey & Chain purified it by freeze-drying (1940) – Nobel prize 1945
• First used in a patient: 1942
• World War II: penicillin saved 12-15% of lives
• History of antibiotics – 5
Selman Waksman – Streptomycin (1943), was the first scientist who discovered antibiotic active against all Gram-negatives for examples; Mycobacterium tuberculosis
– Most severe infections were caused by Gram-negatives and Mycobacterium
tuberculosis, extracted from Streptomyces – extracted from Streptomyces
– 20 other antibiotics include. neomycin, actinomycin
2.8 CHARACTERISTICS OF ANTIBIOTICS
According to the Oxford Dictionary, the term Antibiotics encompasses medicines (such as penicillin or its derivatives) that inhibit the growth of or destroys microorganisms. Antibiotics are naturally occurring substances that exhibit inhibitory properties towards microbial growth at high concentrations. (Zaffiri, et al., 2012).
-Antibiotics are selective in their effect on different microorganisms, being specific in their action not only against genera and species but even against strains and individual cells. Some of these agents act mainly on gram-positive bacteria, while others inhibit only gram-negative ones.
-Some antibiotics are produced by some organism, from different strains of penicillin.
-Bacteria are sensitive to the antibiotic which enable them to developed resistance after contact, for several periods.

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2.9 ROLE OF ANTIBIOTICS
Based on the clinical use of antibiotics, it may appear that these compounds play a similar role as microbial weapons in nature, yet this seems unlikely due to the fact that the concentrations used in the clinical setting are significantly higher than that produced in nature (Fajardo et al., 2008). Due to experimental evidence, it makes more sense to see antibiotics as small, secreted molecules involved in cell-to-cell communication within microbial communities.
(Martinez, 2008). Diverse Studies have been conducted in which different antibiotics and antibiotic-like structures were administered to different bacterial species at levels below the compounds minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC). (Fajardo et al., 2008). that was

2.0 INTRODUCTION
Many have done research on internal auditing in the public sector but my research is on ascertaining the factors that creates effective internal auditing in public institutions to promote good economy and eradicate fraud, risk management, to promote the growth of the public sector.
2.1 DEFINITION OF INTERNAL AUDITING
Many people have written the definition of internal auditing.
Mainoma, 2007; Dandago, 1999 define it as “is an autonomous analysis of, and the explanation of an opinion on financial statements of an organization by a chosen auditor, as per his conditions of his contract and the compliance with statutory rules and experienced requirements.”
Millichamp (2000) also defines internal auditing as “an independent appraisal function within an organisation for the review of system of control and the quality of performance as a service to the organization.
It is a systematic investigation and appraisal of transactions procedures, operations and result in financial statements. (Anichebe, 2010)
According to IIA, 2006 ” Internal auditing is an independent, objective assurance and consulting services designed to add value to the operations of an organization.” It helps an organization accomplish its objectives by bringing a systematic, disciplined approach to evaluate and improve the effectiveness of risk management, control and governance processes.
This indicates that internal auditing is executed to reveal high risk areas, loop holes, evaluate internal control system, examine policies, procedures and evaluate the operations in the various public institutions. All these can be achieved efficiently if the needed support from top officers is readily assessable, also the assistance of the audit client. Internal auditing relieves the workload of external auditors, rescue the organization from misappropriation of funds, assists management to make productive decisions and ensures that high risk areas are given more time to prevent unforeseen incidents and that internal controls are working well. The above causes internal auditing to be very effective.
2.3 OBJECTIVES OF INTERNAL AUDITING
The objectives of internal auditing are as follows:
• Assist top officers to examine internal controls, manage risk and governance processes.
• Ensure policies, procedures, rules, regulations and Acts are working for better operations.
• Aid management to achieve objectives.
According to Okozie, 2004 the main objective of internal auditing is “to help management in the effective execution of their duties by furnishing them with analysis, appraisal, recommendations and pertinent comments concerning the activities reviewed”.
Owler and Brown (1999) states that, the aim of internal auditor is to guard management against errors of principle and disregard of responsibilities.
This means internal auditors are not the police as others perceive them but rather are to make sure that the objectives, ideas of public institutions are economically, efficiently, effectively attained by enlightening management to take right decisions , adopt good policies and procedures and accurate internal controls.
2.4 INTERNAL AUDITING FUNCTION
Stakeholders have different expectations from internal auditors.
• Internal auditing assures that operations are focused on the attainment of objectives public institution and also safeguarding public properties.
• Internal auditors assure that financial, operational data are documented for future referral and simple accountability.
• They assure that management or council members make better choices to increase the survival rate of public institutions in order to render quality services to citizens.
• They aid management to identify risky areas and provide control steps to help those areas.
• They assure that resources are distributed to the appropriate sector and used as budgeted efficiently and effectively in the various government institutions.
This aids internal auditors to express a true and fair view of how things really are. Internal auditors should be honest in performing their responsibilities and have full control to operate.
According to Rittenberg and Schwieger (1997) “internal auditing is important in many of today’s worldwide organizations by aiding management in examining controls and performance, rendering an Important aspect of worldwide control”.
As a result, management and internal auditors have common objective which is to ensure that the institution delivers at its best efficiently, effectively by achieving objectives in general. This encourages internal auditors to work harder to improve government processes, policies, internal control and risk management. Internal auditing assures that funds have been used in conformance to the terms by which such monies were authorized and proper accounts prepared. (Johnson, 2004).

2.5 CHALLENGES IN INTERNAL AUDITIN
• The obstruction of top officers in the functions of internal auditors, top officers sometimes think the laws are not meant for them and dislike their offices being audited.
• Restricted access to data and documents, different aims from stakeholders shows that internal auditors can’t satisfy every stakeholder.
• Non-implementation of suggestions in reports, internal auditors spends a lot of time to audit various sections and make suggestions to solve issues in the departments audited. Suggestions that are not implemented indicate that findings are left unresolved.
Mihret and Yismaw (2007) rank inadequate management assistance as the prime cause for the ineffectiveness of the IA function.
Rose and Norman (2008) suggests that requiring the internal audit function to report directly to the audit committee may create threats to internal auditor’s independence and objectivity because of concerns about career and reputation, overreaction of audit committee members, retaliation by management and the requirement that solutions be offered when fraud risks are reported.
The objective of the study is to assess and evaluate the effectiveness of internal audit in management and accountability in public institutions.
Considering the above literature the following hypotheses were formulated.
H1 Management support and independence to operate has an influence on effective internal auditing.
H2 Availability of resources, better training, internal controls and good working relationship has an influence on effective internal auditing.

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