2.0 not limited to making inappropriate advances. In

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0       PREVIEW A literature review aims to review thecritical points of current knowledge. This chapter focuses on the pastresearches that related to this study. Many studies have been conductedpreviously in study on sexual harassment in the workplace. Therefore, thischapter provides further discussion that related to the study from the pastresearches. 2.1.      SEXUALHARASSMENT IN THE WORKPLACE Sexual harassment is not limited tomaking inappropriate advances. In fact, sexual harassment includes anyunwelcome verbal or physical behavior that creates a hostile work and quid proquo environment (McLaughlin, Uggen, & Blackstone, 2012).

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Besides that,whether the offense is made by a manager, co-worker, or even a non-employeelike a client, contractor, or vendor, if the conduct creates a hostile workenvironment or interrupts an employee’s success, it is considered unlawfulsexual harassment. According Jenkins, (2013) there are few examples of sexualharassement in the workplace:1.   Sharingsexually inappropriate images or videos, such as pornography, with co-workers2.   Sendingsuggestive letters, notes, or e-mails3.   Displayinginappropriate sexual images or posters in the workplace4.   Tellinglewd jokes, or sharing sexual anecdotes5.

   Makinginappropriate sexual gestures6.   Staringin a sexually suggestive or offensive manner, or whistling7.   Makingsexual comments about appearance, clothing, or body parts8.

   Inappropriatetouching, including pinching, patting, rubbing, or purposefully brushing upagainst another person9.   Askingsexual questions, such as questions about someone’s sexual history or theirsexual orientation10.  Making offensive comments aboutsomeone’s sexual orientation or gender identity  2.1.1.   Hostile WorkEnvironment A hostile work environment is aworkplace in which unwelcome comments or conduct based on gender, race,nationality, religion, disability, sexual orientation, age or other legallyprotected characteristics unreasonably interfere with an employee’s work performanceor create an intimidating or offensive work environment for the employee who isbeing harassed.

In addition to the person who is directly harassed, otheremployees who are impacted by the harassment which by hearing or viewing it arealso considered victims. They too might find the work environment intimidatingor hostile, and it might affect their work performance. In this way, bulliesand harassers can affect many more people than just the targeted employee. 2.1.2.   Quid Pro Quo Quid pro quo harassment occurs in theworkplace when a manager or other authority figure offers or merely hints thathe or she will give the employee something (a raise or a promotion) in returnfor that employee’s satisfaction of a sexual demand.

This also occurs when amanager or other authority figure says he or she will not fire or reprimand anemployee in exchange for some type of sexual favor. A job applicant also may bethe subject of this kind of harassment if the hiring decision was based on the acceptanceor rejection of sexual advances. 2.2. JOB SATISFACTION AND PERFORMANCE For decades, organizationalresearchers have been intrigued by employee satisfaction with work. Somestudies have examined antecedents of job satisfaction, specific dimensions ofjob satisfaction, and the relationship between job satisfaction and outcomessuch as job performance (Igalens & Roussel, 1999; Pool, 1997). Among manyindividual antecedents that influence employees’ innovative performance areattitudes (Williams, 2004), cognitive styles (Scott & Bruce, 1994),personality and demographic characteristics such as age, education background,and prior R&D experience (Roberts, 1991; Rothwell, 1992). In terms oforganizational antecedents, expenditure on Research & Development(Hadjimanolis, 2000), cooperation with external technology provider, leader’sinfluence (Hage & Dewar, 1973), and reward system (Eisenberger , 1996; Janssen, 2000; Mumford, 2000) are commonly cited as factors thataffect individuals’ innovative performance.

Kahya (2007) alsoinvestigated on certain factors that affect the job performance. Some studieswere reviewed describing the effect of experience, salary, education, workingconditions and job satisfaction on performance. As a result of the research, ithas been found that several factors affected the employee’s performance. Theposition or grade of an employee in a company was of high positive effect onhis or her performance. Working conditions and environment, on the other hand,had shown both positive and negative relationship on performance. Highlyeducated and qualified employees showed dissatisfaction of bad workingconditions and thus affected their performance negatively. Employees of lowqualifications, on the other hand, showed high performance in spite of the badconditions.

In addition, experience showed positive relationship in most cases,while education did not yield clear relationship with the performance (Kahya,2007). Meta-analyses have shown that the relationship between performance andjob satisfaction is positive, but small (George & Jones, 1997). However,analysis at the organisational level has shown that organisations with higheraverage levels of job satisfaction outperform other organisations (Ostroff,1992). Some studies have suggested there is still lack of workableunderstanding of the way different factors such as work values, jobsatisfaction, and performance interact with one another (George & Jones,1997). Porter and Steers (1973,in Pool, 1997) argued that the extent of employee job satisfaction reflectedthe cumulative level of met worker expectations. This means that employeesexpect their job to provide a mix of features (e.g. pay, promotion, autonomy)for which the employee has certain preferential values.

The range andimportance of these preferences vary across individuals, but when theaccumulation of unmet expectation becomes sufficiently large there is less jobsatisfaction, and greater probability of withdrawal behaviour (Pearson, 1991).According to Wheelan (2010), education chances which organizations that focuson educating and training people about the technical aspects of their jobs andabout effective group participation will increase the likelihood thatorganizational groups will become high performance teams. Job satisfaction isfocused primarily on its impact on employee commitment, absenteeism, intentionsto quit, and actual turnover (Agho, Mueller & Price, 1993). However, acrossstudies, the proportion of variance in turnover explained by levels ofsatisfaction may be smaller than originally thought (Hom & Griffeth, 1991;Lee, Law & Bobko, 1999). On the other hand, a two-year longitudinal studyshowed that employees who changed jobs and stayed in the same occupation andemployees who did not change jobs at all (Wright & Bonnett, 1992). Inparticular, satisfaction with the facets of meaningful work and promotionopportunities were significant predictors of intentions to leave anorganization. Mathieu (1991) tests ofthe causal ordering of job satisfaction and organizational commitment foundthat the effects of a variety of antecedents on organizational commitment weremediated by their impact on the job satisfaction (Tsui, Egan & O ‘Reilly,1992).

Aspects of the work situation have been shown to be determinants of jobsatisfaction (Arvey, Carter & Buerkley, 1991). For example, a broadsituational factor, job level, is positively correlated with satisfaction withall aspects of the job probably because higher- level jobs tend to have betterworking life. 2.3.      WHO ARE THEHARASSER Before policies can be developed toend sexual harassment, policymakers need to know whether sexual harassmentreflects individual behavior or whether certain organizational characteristicsare more conducive to such behavior. Empirical studies consistently documentthat a majority of harassers are male and more likely to be at the same or at ahigher organizational level than their victims. There is little other evidence of apattern by social status, occupation, or age, making it difficult to identifylikely harassers. A body of literature identifies organizationalcharacteristics that create an environment in which sexually harassing behaviorcan exist.

Key characteristics include an organization’s tolerance for sexualharassment and the gender composition of the workplace, which includes factorssuch as the sex of the supervisor and whether an occupation is consideredtraditionally male. Sexual harassment is more prevalent in organizations withlarger power differentials in the hierarchical structure, and in male-dominatedstructures like the military.2.4. CONSQUENCES OF SEXUAL HARASSMENT Harassment also has negativeconsequences on the environment victims are in and can lead to a hostile andless productive work environment. It costs organizations through damagedmorale, lawsuits and absenteeism. In this study, researcher found that, theimpact from the act of sexual harassment can be very significant both on thevictim as well as the organizations.

 2.4.1 Personal Impacts  There are numerous studies about theconsequences of sexual harassment. According to Burke (1995) these consequencesare: 1.   lessersatisfaction with their jobs, 2.   loweroverall satisfaction with the firm 3.

   greaterintention to quit 4.   morelikely to have personally experienced bias in the firm 5.   lessoptimistic views on obtaining due process when reporting harassment 6.   viewthe firm as less committed to treating all employees fairly. Studies by Kissman (1990); Loy andStewart (1984); Marrow, McElroy and Phillips (1994); Ragins and Scandura (1995)discovers that victims tends to experience decreased job satisfaction,decreased organizational commitment and increased levels of stress. Femalevictims also experience tension, anger, and anxiety while a limited numberexperience depression or guilt (Crull, 1982; Jensen and Gutek, 1982). There arealso instances where victims may also feel the need for medical orpsychological attention (Thacker and Gohmann, 1993).2.

4.2. Organisational Impacts Sexual harassment may impact anorganization’s success by jeopardizing employees’ perception of personalsecurity, thus creating decreased employee satisfaction (Nixon, 2002). Lowersatisfaction often results in higher turnover and absenteeism, decreased employeeproductivity, lower morale and decreased likelihood that the employee will beinnovative and spontaneous. Organizations may also be subjected to addedexpenses for legal charges and fines as well as other compensations andpenalties (Aburdene and Naisbitt, 1992).

2.5.      SEXUALHARASSMENT LAW AND LEGISLATURE Sexual Harassment Law is primarily alarge part of Employment Discrimination Law, Civil Rights Law and in somecases, may also result in a Personal Injury lawsuit. Although not clearlydefined and subject to interpretation by various courts, sexual harassment isgenerally described as unwanted and unsolicited physical advances and conductof a sexual nature, such as touching, rubbing and groping, and sexual,demeaning, degrading and/or offensive comments and activity that may or may notcarry the implication that the individual being subjected to these advances maysuffer job-related or school-related retribution if she/he rejects them. Sexual harassment isusually divided into two main categories: Quid Pro Quo and Hostile Environment.Quid Pro Quo is the more overt form and refers to an individual in a positionof power demanding sexual favors or acts in return for action or inaction, suchas a promotion or promising not to terminate the employee or person of lesserpower who is the subject of the harassment. A hostile environment is the morecommon type of sexual harassment, but more difficult to prove.

This exists when anemployee is made to feel uncomfortable and suffers emotional and/or mentalstrain due to frequent exposure to offensive sexual talk and jokes,pornographic images and repeated unwelcome sexual advances, although there isno threat to the employee’s advancement in the work place or continuedemployment. This type of sexual harassment is that which is continually beinginterpreted and re-interpreted by case law and legislative actions. The Equal EmploymentOpportunities Commission (EEOC) is the federal agency responsible forestablishing and administering guidelines and regulations addressing sexualharassment by way of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act. When filing a claim byway of the EEOC, the employee may seek the following remedies: reinstatement ofemployment if she/he has been terminated; a promotion that was unfairly denied;an award of lost wages and other job-related losses; punitive money damages;and injunctive relief, which orders the offender to cease the unwanted sexualharassment, to create a comprehensive written sexual harassment policy and topay the employee’s attorney’s fees. Additionally, many stateshave enacted Fair Employment Practice (FEP) laws which address and regulatesexual harassment on the state level. However, most of these statutes do notprovide for recovery of personal injury damages in a sexual harassment claim.

If a company has an established sexual harassment policy in place, it isusually necessary to follow the steps and procedures set up by the policybefore an employee can escalate the complaint to the EEOC or a state FEPagency. Only after compliance with the company policy has failed to resolve theproblem, may the employee proceed with a claim outside of her/his employer’spurview. The EEOC and state FEP agencies usually offer alternate disputeresolution (ADR) services as a means of resolving a sexual harassment disputewithout formal legal involvement and excessive expense. A small minority of statelevel agencies have also established administrative courts which will hear thecomplaint and may award compensatory money damages for personal injuriessustained by the employee due to the sexual harassment. When an employee hasexhausted the services of the EEOC or state FEP agency without resolution ofher/his complaint, only then may she/he sue. Usually the government agency willissue a legal document, most often called a “right-to-sue letter” that allowsthe employee to file a civil lawsuit.

2.6. ACTIONS TAKEN BY VICTIM OF SEXUAL HARASSMENT There is relatively little materialfor women, men or organizations on how to deal with social-sexual behaviours atwork. Women may find advice on how to avoid sexual harassment or how to dealwith sexual jokes helpful, but given the root causes of such behaviours (men,sexualized work environments); such advice should instead be given to malemanagers of organizations (Burke, 1995). Organizational efforts to reducesexual harassment, flirting, and sexual joking must come from managers who havethe power to change an over-sexualized work environment. These exemplars canset the tone of appropriate language, conduct and appearance. The creation of policyguidelines and their distribution, the dissemination of supportive literature,addressing these issues in management training seminars, and embodyingappropriate attitudes and behaviours in the culture of the organization arenecessary elements in reducing the negative consequences of subtle andnot-so-subtle social-sexual behaviours at work. Policy guidelines must also beimplemented and fully supported if they are to be useful in reducingsocial-sexual behaviours in professional service firms.

People who areoffended, humiliated or intimidated by workplace behaviour rarely bring theirconcerns to the attention of senior staff and managers due to the followingreasons: 1.   fearof work-related reprisals; 2.   distrustof management; 3.   notwanting to be seen as a troublemaker; 4.   wantingto fit in; 5.   mistrustof grievance procedures; 6.   guiltthat something they did encouraged the behaviour; 7.   lowself esteem; 8.

   socialconditioning; 9.   differingcultural values about what they think is acceptable behaviour; or 10.  a feeling that harassment is a’normal’ part of workplace culture (and that nothing can be done about it). Riger (1991) proposes thatthe reasons for the lack of use of sexual harassment grievance procedures lienot in the victims but in the procedures themselves.

The reasons for the lackof this grievance procedures is because men and women differ in their interpretationof the definition of harassment, and, given their generally greater power,men’s ideas about what constitutes harassment are likely to prevail.Attribution theory also suggests that men will be more likely to see sexuallyharassing behaviours as having a situational cause; thus, women are seen asprovoking the behaviours. In addition, grievance procedures for dealing withsexual harassment are likely to be written in gender-neutral terms to make themapplicable to both women and men; however, women and men may have differentreactions to the same procedures. Informal sexual harassmentprocedures try to solve a problem, whereas formal procedures typically attemptto decide on the guilt or innocence of the alleged harasser. Because womentypically lack power, using a formal procedure may be seen as risky and theymight prefer to use informal procedures. With informal procedures offenderssuffer few negative consequences for their actions and victims may have littleto gain from complaining.

It is obviously possible to develop more effectivepolicies and procedures, but even these will not eliminate sexual harassment.Instead, exclusive efforts at prevention need to be mounted at the individual,situational and organizational level. The most important factor in reducingsexual harassment is an organizational environment which promotes equalopportunities for women (Gutek, 1985).2.7.      THEORY GUIDING THE STUDYIn this study,it has a lot of theory that was related.

This is because of, there are manyscholars do the past research on this topic which is a study on sexualharassment in the workplace. However, researcher choose token theory for thisstudy.  2.7.1.   Token Theory The token theory or tokenism refers tothe discrimination and marginalization of the member of a group in a minorityposition.

This theory proses that members of any social group will bediscriminated against if their group makes up less than 15% of an organisation.The theory of token discrimination was developed using evidence from women’sexperience of harassment and marginality in male occupations. There are nosupport was found for negative tokenism effects when men are minority. Menentering female-dominated jobs are generally welcomed or there is a littleevidence that they are marginalized by their female colleagues (Kanter, 1977).However, although the sex ration ofoccupations is an important variable in many studies, the effects of tokenismare rarely examined in the studies. in this study, it is related to the tokentheory because of it showed that women in male-dominated accupations were morelikely to experience sexual harassment than women in other occupations. 2.

8.      PAST RESEARCH ON SEXUAL HARASSMENT Early studies attempting to documentthe prevalence of sexual harassment of women in the workplace found between 50%and 92%of the respondents had experienced some form of sexual harassment. Thesestudies were useful because they provided and served as a foundation for laterand more detailed research, and they also provided valuable descriptiveinformation on the nature and effects of sexual harassment at a time when verylittle was known about the problem. Besides that, a Swedish national studyfound that sexual harassment in male-dominated professions was more frequentlyperpetrated by colleagues, whereas in female dominated jobs a superior is moreoften the perpetrator. Moreover, an interesting study byBarak, Azy (2005) looked at “Sexual harassment on the Internet” and outlinedthe characteristics of online sexual harassment, identified its similaritiesand differences to offline sexual harassment, discuss how technology andcyberspace supports this behaviour and identified some prevention strategies.

Itrevealed that online sexual harassment can be both active and passive. Theactive form specifically targets a specific individual directly through the useof verbal and graphical sexual messages that are offensive and typically occursin chat rooms and forums. Passive sexual harassment occurs whenthe harasser sends graphic and verbal offensive messages to multiple recipientsthrough the use of verbal offensive nicknames, and pornographic picturesattached to emails, as opposed to sending offensive messages to a particularperson. Although several studies haveattempted to investigate the sexual harassment in workplaces, the results ofthese surveys are somewhat difficult to compare because the definitions ofsexual harassment, sampling procedures, population studied and researchmethodologies often vary from one study to another. Taken as a whole, however,these studies clearly indicate that sexual harassment in a serious andwidespread problem for men and women especially at workplace today. 2.9.

      SUMMARY As a conclusion for this chapter,based on the collective of information for the title in this research study,sexual harassment is a crucial problem that has to prevent to get a goodworking environment at workplace. Organization itself should play it roles inpreventing the sexual harassment so it can maintain the organization’sreputation. Besides that, in this chapter, there are different terms related bythe dependent and independent variable of this study was being highlighted.

   

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