1936 known for the discrimination of some

1936 Berlin OlympicsBy: Abdullah EyadaPaper       Introduction            This paper is about the 1936 Berlin Olympics. It tookplace in Berlin, Nazi Germany. It happened during the year 1936. The BerlinOlympics are known for the propaganda and the targeting of Jews and Gypsies. Theyalso took many Jews and other people off the street to show a picture of apeaceful and tolerate Germany.

Hitler had a huge role in the Olympics. Hitlersaw the Olympic games as nothing but a chance to showcase Germany to the world.Hitler tried to exclude people from participating in the games for no reason buttheir race. This led to conflict and boycotting until Hitler finally agreed tolift the rule and let all people enter. Thesis            The Berlin Olympics were known for the politicalatmosphere that occurred during the games. It was also known for the discriminationof some races. The Nazis used the Olympic games for propaganda. The BerlinOlympic games were a unique historical event.

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Events            Berlinwas voted to host the Olympic games in 1931, In 1933 the Nazi party rose topower (Grannan, n.d). After this many western countries wanted to boycott theOlympics. This was because they were disgusted by the German’s racist policiesand human rights violations.

49 countries still attended the Berlin Olympics. Thatwas the biggest number of countries to ever attend the Olympic games at theirtime. The Nazis spent 162.

4 million dollars building a 325-acre Olympic sportcomplex (The History Place, 2001). It was located five miles west of Berlin.The centerpiece of the Olympic complex was a stadium able to seat 110,000people. It was the largest stadium in the world. The president of Germany’sOlympic Committee was kicked out after it was discovered his grandmother wasJewish. He was replaced by a man named Hans von Tschammer und Osten (The History Place, 2001). He establishedthe “Aryans Only” policy in choosing Germany’s Olympic athletes. Some of theJews who were not allowed to participate were world class athletes.

Most ofthem and other Jew athletes left Germany to continue their careers elsewhere.The Nazis also didn’t allow Gypsies to participate including their championboxer Johann Trollmann. These bans were condemned internationally as aviolation of Olympic code of equality and fair play (The History Place, 2001).

 The Olympics were supposed to be anexercise in goodwill among all nations emphasizing racial equality in sportscompetition. The Nazis, however, had no interest in promoting racial equalityand hoped instead to use the Olympics to show off Aryan athletes, who theybelieved were naturally superior because of their race (The History Place, 2001).The Nazis attitude brought international calls for a boycott of the Berlingames. There were also requests to move the games to another country. For manyAmerican critics of the Hitler regime, the banning of Jews from Germany’sOlympic team was the last straw. The American Olympic Committee was headed byformer U.

S. Olympic athlete, Avery Brundage, who initially supported the ideaof a boycott of the Berlin Olympics (The History Place, 2001). The Nazisattempted to smooth things over by inviting Brundage to Germany and took him tosee special training courses supposedly set up for use by Jews in Germany.Brundage was impressed by what he saw and by the extra-special VIP treatment hewas given by the Nazis. As a result, Brundage returned to America and announcedon September 26, 1934, that the American Olympic Committee officially acceptedthe invitation to participate in the Berlin Olympics (The History Place, 2001).The Amateur Athletic Union, however, was not so easily swayed.

Its leader,Jeremiah Mahoney, declared that American participation in the Berlin Gamesmeant nothing less than giving American moral and financial support to the Naziregime, which is opposed to all that Americans hold important. Mahoney wassupported in his position by various American Jewish and Christian leaders,along with liberal politicians such as New York Governor Al Smith. 41 collegepresidents also voiced their support for a boycott. In addition, America’strade union leaders supported an Olympic boycott and pushed for a completeeconomic boycott of Nazi Germany. They were strongly anti-Hitler because of theorderly division of Germany’s trade unions by the Nazis. Responding to themounting international pressure, the Nazis made a token gesture by allowing apart-Jewish athlete, Helene Mayer, back on their Olympic team. She had won agold medal at the 1928 Games and was the world’s greatest female fencer.

TheNazis also let the part-Jewish Theodor Lewald function as an advisor to Germany’sOlympic Organizing Committee (The History Place, 2001). Avery Brundageresponded to his own critics by claiming the Olympics were meant for”athletes not politicians.” He succeeded in convincing severalAmerican athletes to his point of view. When the Amateur Athletic Union tookits final vote on December 8, 1935, the boycott proposal was voted down by avery thin margin. TheOlympics BeginTourists entered a clean Berlin where allundesirable people had been swept off the streets by police and sent to aspecial detention camp outside the city.

Buildings everywhere were decoratedwith Olympic flags hung side-by-side with Nazi swastikas including all thevarious facilities used for sporting competitions (The History Place, 2001). The”Jews Not Welcome” signs normally seen throughout Germany were removed fromhotels, restaurants and public places for the duration of the Olympics. Nazistorm troopers were also ordered to refrain from any actions against Jews. Interestingly,visitors wanting to talk to Jews in Berlin about their daily experiences orinvestigate Jewish life in Nazi Germany were required to contact the Gestapofirst, after which they would be closely watched until they departed.  Over 5,000 athletes from 51 nations thenmarched in according to alphabetical order, with Greece leading the wholeparade and the host country, Germany, at the end. But even the opening ceremonywas not without controversy, the question being whether athletes would give theNazi salute to Hitler as they passed by his stand.

There was some confusionover this issue, since the Olympic salute with right arm held out sideways fromthe shoulder could also be mistaken for the Hitler stiff-arm salute. Mostcountries gave either one or the other. Austrian athletes gave the Hitlersalute. French athletes gave the Hitler salute, although some French athleteslater claimed it was the Olympic salute. The Bulgarians outdid everyone by goosestepping past Hitler (The History Place, 2001). The British and Americans chosea military style salute. Jesse Owens was probably the most famous athlete fromthe 1936 Berlin Olympics.

The 100 and 200-meter sprints were won by Jesse Owens.He set new world records in both races. He went on to win four gold medals inall, setting a world record in the long jump and assisted in setting one in the400-meter relay. Owens became an instant superstar in Berlin. German fanschanted his name whenever he entered the Olympic Stadium and mobbed him forautographs in the street.

Another big news story erupted in America when it wasrevealed that the only two Jews on the U.S. track team had been dumped at thelast minute from the 400-meter relay race (The History Place, 2001). On themorning of the race, the two of them were informed by their head coach theywould be replaced by Jesse Owens and Ralph Metcalfe. People later thought thatAvery Brundage might have pressured the American coaches to drop the Jews toavoid upsetting Hitler. As a result, they wound up sitting in the standswatching the race which they might have easily won themselves since they wereexcellent relay runners. The Olympics EndThe Olympic Games concluded on Sunday,August 16, with Germany as the overall victor, capturing 89 medals.

TheAmericans came in second with 56. The Games were preserved on film by Triumph of the Will directorLeni Riefenstahl. Financed by the Nazis, she brought thirty-three cameraoperators to the Olympics and shot over a million feet of film. It took hereighteen months to edit Olympia intoa four-hour film which was released in two parts beginning in April 1938. TheBerlin Games saw the first-ever use of television at the Olympics, although thegraphics were not very good. At the OlympicVillage, where all the male athletes lived, a large recreation building knownas Hindenburg Hall had a TV room where they could watch live competitions.Seventeen other sites around Berlin also featured TV rooms. The Olympic Villageitself received great reviews from everyone who stayed there.

The 130-acrevillage was constructed by the German Army under the direction of CaptainWolfgang Fuerstner. It was laid out in the shape of a map of Germany andcontained 140 buildings including a post office and bank. Each of the athletes’houses contained 13 bedrooms, with two athletes per room. There were twostewards always on duty in each house who spoke the athletes’ native language.Training facilities in the Village included a 400-meter oval track and afull-size indoor swimming pool (The History Place, 2001). The 1936 BerlinOlympics were unique.

Conclusion            Overall,the Berlin Olympics were an enormous success for the Nazis. Hundreds ofjournalists acknowledged that Germany had put on the most lavish and biggestOlympics ever. Thousands of tourists also left Germany with happy memories ofthe politeness extended to them by the Nazis and the German people, as well asthe fantastic places and precise efficiency of the whole event. In Conclusion,the Berlin Olympics were based on politics and racism.

            Annotated BibliographyBrown, Daniel James. The Boys in The Boat.Seattle, Seattle Times, 2013.This book gave meinformation on a person’s point of view competing in the Olympics. I used thisbook to help format my paper to be more like a story.  Cichanowicz,Lily.

“6 Moments That Shaped the Berlin Olympics.” The Culture Trip, 24Nov. 2016, .Accessed 17 Nov. 2017.This article told meabout important people who participated in the 1936 Berlin Olympics.

Thesepeople included Jesse Owens, Marjorie Gestring, and John Woodruff. The articlealso explained their achievements in the games. C N Trueman “The 1936 Berlin Olympics”historylearningsite.co.uk. The History Learning Site,9 Mar 2015. 28 Jan 2018. This website wasinformation on the propaganda that happened during the games.

I used it towrite about the propaganda. “The Dark Side of Classicism.” Guggenheim, 5Feb. 2008, www.guggenheim.

org/arts-curriculum/topic/dark-side-of-classicism.Accessed 18 Jan. 2018. This website was aboutthe ideals of Hitler. It gave me information about how Hitler compared Germanyto the great Ancient civilizations.

I used this information in my paper toexplain the propaganda that occurred during the games. Goss, Jennifer L., Contributing Writer. “1936 OlympicGames.” ThoughtCo, Apr. 17, 2017, thoughtco.com/1936-olympic-games-1779271.

This website gave me anoverview of the main events that occurred during the games. I used it to adddetails to my paper. Grannan, Cydney. “7 Significant Political Events atthe Olympic Games.

” Encyclopedia Britannica,www.britannica.com/list/7-significant-political-events-at-the-olympic-games.Accessed 27 Jan. 2018. This website was a summary of the Olympics. Iused it to add information about the propaganda to my paper.Green, David B.

“1936: A Jew Wins a Medal for NaziGermany in the Berlin Olympics.” HAARETZ, 5 Aug. 2016,www.haaretz.com/jewish/this-day-in-jewish-history/.premium-1.

735288. Accessed11 Jan. 2018. This website was about aJew who competed in the Olympics.

I learned about a Jew named Helene Mayer whowon a silver medal in the fencing competition. I used this information asbackground knowledge on the Jews that competed. Holocaust Museum. “The Nazi Olympics Berlin 1936.” Ushmm.org,1st ed., version 1, revision 1, Holocaust Museum, 4 Apr.

2013,www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005680. Accessed 19 Oct. 2017.

This website gave meinformation about the main parts of the Berlin Olympics. I used it to give meextra insight on the events that occurred during the games. “The 1936 Berlin Olympics.” Greyfalcon, 5 June2006, greyfalcon.us/The%201936%20Olympics.htm.

Accessed 12 Jan. 2018. This website was aboutthe boycotting that happened before the Olympics. I used this information towrite about the boycott in my paper. Ockerman, Emma.

“What happened when Hitler hosted theOlympics 80 years ago?” Times, 12 Sept. 2016, p. 1,time.com/4432857/hitler-hosted-olympics-1936/.

Accessed 3 Nov. 2017. This website gave me an overview on mainevents that happened during the 1936 Berlin Olympics. It gave me information onthe reason why Hitler wanted to host the Olympics.

 “Olympics Games of 1936.” Yadvashem, edited byShoah Resource Center, 7 June 2005,www.yadvashem.org/odot_pdf/Microsoft%20Word%20-%205801.pdf.

Accessed 5 Dec.2017. This website gave me anoverview of the Olympics.

I used this information to add details to mypaper. Preis, Ellen, editor. “The Nazi Olympics.” JewishVirtual Library, 1st ed.

, version 2, revision 1, Holocaust Museum, 13 Apr.2000, www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/the-nazi-olympics-august-1936. Accessed 27Oct. 2017. This website was anoverview of the Olympics. I used it to write about the exclusion of theJews.

 Smith, Amanda. “Remembering the 1936 Berlin ‘NaziOlympics.'” ABC, 5 Aug. 2015,www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/bodysphere/remembering-the-1936-berlin-%E2%80%98nazi-olympics%E2%80%99/6674614.Accessed 5 Dec.

2017. Thisarticle was about the beginning of the Olympics. It gave me information aboutthe beginning ceremony of the Olympics. I used this information to explain theceremony in my paper. Stanford. “Berlin the City.

” Stanford, 9 Oct.2003, web.stanford.edu/dept/german/berlin_class/archives/glossary_olympics1936.html.Accessed 17 Nov. 2017. This website gave meinformation about the political environment of the Olympics.

I used it to talkabout the political aspect of the Olympics. “The Triumph of Hitler.” The History Place, 6June 2001, www.

historyplace.com/worldwar2/triumph/tr-olympics.htm. Accessed 27Oct. 2017.

This website was anoverview about the Olympics. I used it to give me extra information onsubjects.              


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