192659053975 PAGEREF _Toc518413781 h 92.1.1 Trend of

192659053975
MAKERERE UNIVERSITY
ECOLOGICAL RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH ARTISANAL SMALL-SCALE GOLD MINING IN KARAMOJA SUB-REGION, UGANDA
Senyonga Derick
Student No.210018187
Reg.no 2017/HD02/3244U
A Research Proposal Submitted to the Directorate of Research and Graduate Training, as a partial fulfilment for the award of a Master of Science in Disaster Risk Management
September 2018
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TOC o “1-3” h z u CHAPTER ONE PAGEREF _Toc518413765 h 31.1 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc518413766 h 31.2 Problem Statement PAGEREF _Toc518413768 h 51.3 The Study Objectives PAGEREF _Toc518413770 h 51.3.2 Specific Objectives PAGEREF _Toc518413771 h 51.4 Research Questions PAGEREF _Toc518413772 h 61.5 Hypothesis PAGEREF _Toc518413773 h 61. Justification of the Study PAGEREF _Toc518413777 h 61.7 Significance of the Study PAGEREF _Toc518413778 h 7CHAPTER TWO PAGEREF _Toc518413779 h 92.0 Literature Review PAGEREF _Toc518413780 h 92.1 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc518413781 h 92.1.1 Trend of Artisan Small Scale mining PAGEREF _Toc518413782 h 92.1.2 Environment and Disaster Risks PAGEREF _Toc518413783 h 102.1.3 Characteristics of Artisan Small-Scale Gold Mining PAGEREF _Toc518413784 h 112.1.4 Livelihood and ASSGM Nexus PAGEREF _Toc518413785 h 112.1.5 Impacts of ASSGM on Environment. PAGEREF _Toc518413786 h 122.1.6 Understanding Disaster risks associated with ASSGM PAGEREF _Toc518413787 h 122.1.7 Gold in Karamoja Region PAGEREF _Toc518413788 h 132.1.8 Legislative Framework of Mining in Uganda PAGEREF _Toc518413789 h 13CHAPTER THREE PAGEREF _Toc518413790 h 143.0 Methodology PAGEREF _Toc518413791 h 143.1 Description of study area PAGEREF _Toc518413792 h 143.1. Location PAGEREF _Toc518413793 h 143.1.2 General Geology PAGEREF _Toc518413794 h 153.1.5 Sampling Procedure PAGEREF _Toc518413795 h 183.1.6 Data collection methods PAGEREF _Toc518413796 h 193.1.7 Data Analysis PAGEREF _Toc518413797 h 204.0 Bibliography PAGEREF _Toc518413798 h 21
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Artisanal and small-scale mining refers to mining by individuals, groups, families or cooperatives with minimal or no mechanisation, often in the informal (illegal) sector of the market (Hentshel et.al, 2002). Despite many attempts, a common definition of ASM has yet to be established (Ibid, 2002). In this study Artisanal Small Scale mining will refer to gold mining activities that are informal and use rudmenatlly technologies in the mineral extraction.

Artisanal and Small-Scale mining (ASM) has experienced amassed growth in recent years due to the rising value of mineral prices and the increasing difficulty of earning a living from agriculture and other rural-income-generating activities (IGF, 2017). An estimated Worldwide that, 40.5 million people were directly engaged in ASM in 2017, up from 30 million in 2014, 13 million in 1999 and 6 million in 1993 (Ibid, 2017). That compares with only 7 million people working in industrial mining in 2013 (Ibid, 2017) Worldwide. ASM is important for the economically vulnerable and is likely to continue to provide livelihoods for millions worldwide (PricewaterhouseCoopers, 2013). ASM play a crucial role in poverty alleviation and rural development; as most of those involved are poor and mining represents the most promising, if not the only, income opportunity available (Ibid, 2013).
However, the sector is better known for its high environmental costs (MMSD, 2003). ASM has devastating impacts on the environment, such as deforestation, burning of bushes and use of harmful chemicals like mercury which in turn may cause ecological disasters leading to loss of human lives and properties (Cube-Phiri1 (et. al 2015).

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Environmental disasters are disasters to the natural environment mostly due to human activities such as over-exploitation of natural resources and unsustainable development that result in disease and death of living beings (Rahman, 2014). Environmental disasters can result from technical accidents, human, technological or mechanical failure or carelessness (Ibid, 2014). The release of mercury by (ASGM) is estimated at 1,400 tons per year in 2011 according to the Minamata Convention (2017). Mercury is difficult to contain and can be toxic at even very small doses (). It can be transported long distances by air or water, poisoning the soil and waterways, and eventually making its way into the food chain (IGF 2017). These environmental impacts are a result of destructive mining, wasteful mineral extraction, processing practices and techniques used by the artisanal small-scale miners.
In most developing countries, artisanal gold mining remains largely informal and unregulated and miners rely heavily on inexpensive, outdated and polluting technologies and chemicals, such as mercury (Nabaasa, 2016). Environmental contamination by mercury is of concern in the countries of Latin America, South East Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa which have witnessed an expansion of artisanal gold mining during the past three decades. Problems of mercury (Hg) contamination arising from gold mining in the Amazon River basin of Brazil have been widely documented (Lacerda and Salomons, 1998) yet there remains relatively little quantitative data for other major artisanal mining areas worldwide (Appleton et al, 2000).

Artisanal Small-scale Mining (ASM), in Uganda, refers to mining activities that are predominantly informally organized and un-mechanized (Houdet et.al 2014). According to the Independent newspaper, since 2008, was the onset of the gold rush across Uganda (Musoke, 2017). Officials from the Directorate of Geological Survey and Mines (DGSM) say artisanal and small-scale gold mining activities have risen by 40% across Uganda’s gold-rich areas of Karamoja, Buhweju and Ibanda in the west and Namayingo and Busia in south-eastern Uganda. The Ugandan government still regards ASGM as an illegal practice. As such, there is no regulatory and policy framework to guide artisanal mining operations (Nabaasa, 2016).

1.2Problem StatementThere is an emergent ecological challenge in Uganda associated with artisan and Small-scale gold mining (ASSGM) practices which are on increase in many parts of the country with thousands of local communities currently engaged in the mining practices (Kinene, 2012). Artisanal mining is associated with a number of environmental impacts, including deforestation and land degradation, open pits which pose animal traps and health hazards, and heavy metals contamination of land (water and soil), dust and noise pollution (Kamga et.al 2018). The release of high quantities of sediment, (along with metals and other contaminants) into local water bodies, pose environmental risks (Macdonald et.al, 2015). The environmental degradation associated with excavating large volumes of soil can affect groundwater when the water-table level is reached, as well as the water quality of adjacent drainages (Hebert Nabaasa, 2016). Mercury use in gold extraction is a time bomb to over 20,000 lives that are exposed to it in Uganda (Mukasa, 2017). Mercury accumulate in the kidney, liver, skin and lungs, causing permanent mental disability and a range of other conditions such as blood clotting and cancer.

It is therefore the focus of this study to understand the environmental damage and risks associated with ASSGM in Karamoja region by assessing the ecological risks associated with artisan-small scale gold mining activities. In the research study, key variables of interest will be considered from the demographic such as (gender, age, marital status etc.), gold extraction environmental damage and the associated risks will be examined.1.3The Study Objectives1.3.1 General objective
To assess the ecological risks associated with artisanal small scale gold mining activities in the vulnerable communities in Karamoja region
1.3.2 Specific ObjectivesTo map and characterise artisanal mining activities in Karamoja sub-region.
To identify ecological hazards resulting from artisanal small-scale gold mining activities in the sub-region
To investigate community’s perception about the ecological risks associated with ASSGM.

To find out the coping mechanisms employed by artisans to mitigate the risks.

1.4 Research QuestionsWhat are the physical-social characteristics of ASSGM in Karamoja sub-region?
Which ecological hazards associated with Artisanal gold mining activities in Karamoja region?
What are communities perception about ecological risks associated with the ASSGM in the sub-region?
How are the communities coping with the ecological risks?
1.6Justification of the Study The Sendai Framework (2015-2030), priority no.1 is about “Understanding disaster risk where policies and practices for disaster risk management should be based on an understanding of risks in all dimensions of vulnerability, capacity, exposure of persons and assets, hazard characteristics and the environment. Such knowledge is a leverage for pre-disaster risk assessment, prevention, mitigation, development and implementation of appropriate preparedness and effective response to disasters”.

Kinene, (2012) acknowledges that there is an emerging ecological challenge in Uganda associated with artisanal gold mining practices which are said to be on the increase in many parts of the country with thousands of local communities currently engaged in the mining practices. However, there is limited understanding of these risks in all their dimensions.

The study intends therefore, to provide a better understanding of the nature and extent of environmental problems and their associated risks to ecological disasters, so that households, miners and the responsible authorities better prepare for any potential disaster that can ensue due to ASSGM practises in Karamoja region.1.7 Significance of the StudyThe results of the study will be important in informing policy, new and existing knowledge and other important aspects that can influence change amongst different stakeholders.

Mineral extraction is the most destructive industry in the Environment, and Artisanal Small-Scale mining contributes to this destruction (Ncube-Phiri et.al, 2015). The unregulated actions of artisanal miners on the environment such as clear cutting forests/vegetation, river dredging, and use of toxic chemicals such as mercury and cyanide possess a high threat to accumulation of disaster risks such as the Minamata disease outbreak, food shortage, land degradation among others.

The study will provide a basis for understanding the underlying ecological risks associated with ASSGM in the Karamoja region in its concepts of exposure, and hazard characteristic in the vulnerable communities.

The findings can be used by key decision makers involved in environment and disaster risk reduction planning at both the District Local Governments and community level through their committees to reduce/mitigate the possible disasters.
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW2.1 IntroductionArtisanal gold mining (AGM) takes place throughout the world, but is particularly widespread in developing countries in Africa, Asia, Oceania, Central and South America (Hentschel, 2003). Vulnerable populations are more at risk to disasters – poverty exacerbates vulnerabilities, especially for poor communities that are heavily dependent on ecosystem services for their livelihoods and for physical protection (Sudmeier et.al, 2013). Ecosystem degradation and loss have led to serious impacts on human well-being: these include reduced availability of goods and services to local communities, increased spread of diseases and reduced economic opportunities (Sudmeier et.al, 2013). Artisanal small-scale mining (ASM) has devastating impacts on the environment, such as deforestation, over-stripping of overburden, burning of bushes and use of harmful chemicals like mercury (Ncube-Phiri et.al, 2015) that contributes to ecological risk accumulation.
2.1.1 Trends in Small Scale Artisanal miningArtisanal and small-scale mining is recognized as a considerable source of revenue for millions of people in about 80 countries worldwide (World Gold Council, 2017; World Bank, 2013). ASM takes place in diverse regions of the world, mostly in the global south—sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, Oceania, Central and South America (IGF, 2017). The term “artisanal and small-scale” has been defined in various ways, often characterized in terms of the number of miners, the production capacity of a mine, the level of mechanization or size of capital investments (International Labour Organization (ILO), 1999; World Gold Council, 2017). In 1993, about six million people were believed to be working in ASM; in 1999 the International Labour Organization (ILO) revised this number to 13 million miners (including women and children) and estimated that about 80–100 million people depended on this activity at that time (ILO, 1999). In recent years, the number of people directly involved in ASM has more than doubled, reaching about 30 million people in 2014 as a result of such things as rising mineral prices and the increasing difficulty of earning a living from alternative activities like agriculture (Garcia et al., 2015; Seccatore et al., 2014). According to current data from the Artisanal and Small-scale Mining Knowledge Sharing Archive website (2017), direct ASM numbers might have reached 40.5 million in 2017. Some sources estimate a much higher number up-to 100 million ASM operators compared to seven million people working in industrial mining (World Bank, 2013).

In Africa, about 9 million ASM operators in Africa and about 54 million people whose livelihoods depend on the sector (Ledwaba & Nhlengetwa, 2016 Persaud et al., 2017). The Africa Minerals Development Centre (AMDC) considers this a “conservative estimate,” citing an important lack of data on ASM, as the activity is often informal and mostly operates illegally in several African countries (AMDC, 2015).

In 2011, according to the data provided by (Hilson and McQuilken , 2014), the number of people dependent on ASM activity in Africa was between four and 12 times the number of ASM operators, but mostly around six times the ASM miner population (e.g., in the Central African Republic, Chad, Côte d’Ivoire, DRC).

Significant migration of the workforce-within countries and between neighbouring or other countries-in an aspect of ASM makes it difficult to generate more accurate estimates (IGF, 2017). The ASM population in Tanzania is characterized by migrating from one site to another; in Geita, for example, Aizawa (2016) observed that 12 per cent of the mining population comes from outside Geita. According to the author, the miners who work as diggers are more mobile than those who are primary mining licence (PML) holders, who operate their licensed areas for years (Ibid, 2017).

Uganda has seen a mass migration of people looking for gold (Nabaasa, 2016. Over the past decade, Uganda’s ASM sector is believed to have grown significantly in terms of both production and employment (Barreto et.al 2018). With this growth, disputes with larger private sector actors seem to have increased in frequency and intensity, resulting in greater awareness of ASM by government and civil society (Ibid 2018). Given high rates of informality, low contributions to official state revenues, and lack of robust statistics on ASM, much of this attention mainly has focused on negative aspects of the sector (Ibid, 2018). This includes the crude, labor-intensive methods and related environmental risks (Ibid, 2018).

Conceptual review
The conceptual frame work is guided by the Corvalan (1999) cause-effect framework. This framework underlines the interlinkage of Drivers, Pressure, State, Impact and Responses (DPSIR) which are used to represent the indicators needed to enable feedback to policy makers on the environmental quality and risks resulting from human alteration of the environment.

According to the DPSIR framework, there is a chain of causal links starting with driving forces (human activities such as mining) through ‘Pressures’ (emissions, waste, deforestation) to ‘State’ (physical, chemical and biological) and ‘Impacts’ on ecosystem and functions and eventually leading to political ‘Responses’ (priotisation, legislation, target settings, indicators) (EEA 1998).

A ‘driving force’ is a need which can be primary or secondary. Primary driving forces for an individual for example, is the need for shelter, food and water while secondary forces are a need for mobility, entertainment and culture. For and industrial sector a driving force could be a need for profits while producing at low cost, while for a nation, driving force could be the need for unemployment levels low.

Driving forces lead to human activities such as artisanal gold mining as a means of meeting the basic needs. The activities associated with ASGM exert ‘pressure’ on the environment through, excessive use of environmental resources such as gold, changes in the land use and emissions through (chemicals, waste, and radiation, noise) to air, water and soil.

As a result of pressures, the ‘state’ of the various components of the environment such as air, water and soil are affected in relation to the functions that these components play hence ecological hazards. The ‘state’ of the environment is thus the combination of physical, chemical, human and biological conditions (EEA, 2003). The changes in the conditions brought about by artisanal gold mining activities determines the quality of the environment that may result in the un-acceptable ecological risks that can cause loss of human life. In other words the changes in the state may have impacts on the functioning of ecosystem and their life supporting abilities (EEA, 1999)
A ‘response’ by society individual or policy makers is as a result of un-desirable conditions/risks and can affect any part of the chain between the driving forces and the impacts.

Figure 1. Conceptual framework
Thematic review
2.1.2 Nature of Artisanal Small-Scale Gold Mining (ASSGM)
Artisanal gold mining industry is motivated less by adventure and more by survival amongst the people with high levels of poverty. Poverty-driven miners rely on inexpensive, outdated, polluting technologies and chemicals such as mercury which has high environmental risks (Hinton, 2011).

Mining operations are generally destructive to the environment and can cause physical disturbances to the landscape, creating eyesores such as waste-rock piles and open pits. Particularly, surface mining requires large areas of land to be cleared so that the earth could be dug into by the miners causing harm to the environment and affecting arable lands thereby threatening food production (NEMA 2011).

Categories of ASGM mines – Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation – SDC, 2011 categorize ASGM as,
1. Permanent artisanal mining. Full time, year round activity. For the involved People, mining is frequently the only economic activity or sometimes accompanied by other acti ities like farming, herding or other extractive tasks of indigenous groups
2. Seasonal artisanal mining. Seasonal switching of activities or seasonal migration of people into artisanal mining areas, e.g. during idle agricultural periods to supplement their annual incomes
3. Rush-type artisanal mining. Massive migration based on the perception that the expected income opportunity from recently discovered deposit far exceeds the current actual income of the people who are lured into it. It is not uncommon to observe former rush areas converting into new communities and rush miners converting into settlers
4. Shock-push artisanal mining. A clearly poverty driven activity, emerging after recent loss of employment in other sectors, conflicts or natural disasters. Many of the individuals, mostly itinerant and poorly educated, have no other choice and miners remain trapped in the poverty cycle.

The International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED) and the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) characterize ASSGM by a number of conditions:
Lack of or limited use of mechanization, and a lot of physically demanding work
Low level of occupational safety and health care
Inefficiency in exploitation and processing of mineral production (low recovery value)
Exploitation of marginal and/or very small deposits, which are not economically exploitable by mechanized mining
Low level of productivity
Periodic operation by local peasants by season or according to the market price development
Lack of social security
Insufficient consideration of environmental issues
2.1.3 Ecological hazards and risks associated with Artisan Small scale gold mining
Artisanal Gold Mining in most developing countries is still largely informal and unregulated and as a result, small-scale miners rely heavily on inexpensive, outdated, polluting technologies and chemicals chief among them mercury with high risks on the environment
In Uganda, artisanal and small-scale gold mining is one of the emerging forms of Environmental degradation in different districts (Nabaasa, 2016). The mining sites in Uganda encompass various ecological areas, which range from fragile aquatic systems to fertile agro-ecological zones and rocky areas. On the Kisita, Kamalengera, Tira and Amonikakine mining sites, gold is recovered from hard-rock reefs (Ibid, 2016). Most of the gold is recovered from alluvial material and potential agricultural fields (Ibid, 2016)
2.1.3.1 Exposure to mercury/cyanide
Artisanal gold mining is the leading cause of global mercury pollution, ahead of coal-fired power plants (Hinton, 2011). In addition to its impact on the environment, mercury is extremely harmful to human health (Hinton, 2011). The amount of vapour that mining activities release has been proven to damage the kidneys, liver, brain, heart, lungs, colon and immune system (Ibid, 2011). Chronic exposure to mercury may lead to fatigue, weight loss, tremors and behavioural changes. In children and developing foetuses, mercury can impair neurological development (Ibid, 2011).Water from mining operation has the potential to contaminate surface water because of the Cyanide and mercury used in gold extraction. Cyanide and mercury can cause harm to aquatic and wildlife (Bulawayo Commissioner, 2007). Humans may be exposed to cyanide by breathing in HCN gas, through contaminated drinking water, eating foods containing cyanides, or by touching soil contaminated with cyanide (Ackley, 2008). In surface waters, the majority of cyanide will evaporate as HCN gas under most natural conditions. Exposure to large concentrations of cyanide over a short period of time may result in acute cyanide poisoning (Ibid, 2008).

2.1.3.2 Ground collapsing
Mining leaves openings both on the surface and underground and as a result, fractures can develop leading to collapse of the ground. The impact can be catastrophic if the fractures or subsidence occurs where there are structures on the surface. Needless to say the impact are disastrous if subsidence leads to trapping and subsequently loss of human life underground. The impact is high during the operation stage especially when blasting and during wet periods (Bulawayo Commissioner, 2007). Several people have reportedly been killed in Uganda by mining collapses and on a single mining site, an average of 10 people die annually (MDLG 2013). According to an article published in the Daily Monitor newspaper on 10 November 2014, 12 people were killed and several others injured when a gold mine at the Luginji mining site in the Mubende District’s Kitumbi Sub-county caved in (Nabaasa, 2016)
2.1.3.3 Losses and modification of soil profile
Mining activities by nature are extractive that is, involve the removal of the soil from underground on to the surface (Pablo, 2006). The result is that the natural arrangement of the soil layers (profile) is altered. The soil Extracted from the deep down the earth’s crust is not suitable for crop/plant growth. If not properly mitigated, the effect can have significant modification of the soil structure and effect of plant growth (Pablo, 2006).

2.1.3.4 Soil erosion and siltation
Erosion is likely to affect mining operation especially during construction phase and when land is cleared and soil is disturbed. Trenches and roads loosen the soil and this leads to erosion. Soil erosion has significant impact as it contaminates water bodies and modification of the soil profile as the topsoil is eroded (Bulawayo Mining Commissioner 2007).

2.1.3.4 Deforestation
Vegetation in form of natural forest or crop plantation is usually the first ”casualty” to suffer total or partial destruction or degradation during the exploration and exploitation of minerals in a locality (Kamga, et.al 2018). The deforestation and land excavation during gold mining operations results into siltation of the nearby water sources through discharge of tailings into waterways, reduces light penetration and dissolved oxygen levels, thereby jeopardizing fisheries, and may result in flooding (Hinton, 2002). Deforestation can significantly impact women and families, due to the importance of forests for fuelwood and, sometimes, food and medicine (Nabaasa, 2016).

2.1.4 Risk reduction strategies in artisan gold mining communities
An understanding of the ecological risks associated with gold mining is critical to decision-making, planning and implementation of development projects that are competing for the same resources in the gold mining area, for example rural, urban, legal mining, illegal mining, and irrigated commercial and subsistence agriculture (Ncube-Phiri, et.al 2015). Individuals that accurately know the ecological risks and benefits associated with mining, may make informed decisions about living and working in a mining community (Ackley, 2008).

CHAPTER THREE: DATA AND METHODS
3.0 INTRODUCTION
The study will adopt both quantitative and qualitative research designs. Quantitative design basically involve numerical description of data. This description is precise since it specifically quantify the phenomena characteristic using statistics analysis inform of percentages, ranks, mean among others. Though the approach is precise, it hinder a wider coverage of human perceptions and behaviour hence the need to supplement the design with qualitative design.
Hitchcock and Huges (1995) acknowledge the strengths of a qualitative approach as, “Approaches that enable the researcher to learn at first hand, about the social world they are investigating by means of involvement and participation in that world through a focus upon what individual actors say and do”. Qualitative research therefore uses naturalistic approach that seeks to understand phenomenon in a context specific setting such as what individual believe, know and understand about a particular issue.

3.1.2 General Geology of Karamoja sub-region
Uganda lies within the African plate, which is a continental crust that contains Archaean cratons that date at least 2700 Million years (Hinton et.al 2010). Within Karamoja, major structures that run through the region include shear belts (extended zones of rock fracturing and faulting), which occur in Late Precambrian age rocks, and large areas covered by Archean rocks (Hinton et.al 2010). This may be significant as most gold occurrence have been found associated with quartz vein (Often found in shear zones in intrusive and volcanic sedimentary rock of P Proterozoic and possibly Archean age (Hinton et.al 2010)
3.1Description of study area3.1.1LocationKaramoja sub-region, is located in north-eastern Uganda with seven districts: Kaabong, Abim, Kotido, Moroto, Amudat, Napak and Nakapiripirit. The region borders Kenya to the east, South Sudan to the north and the districts of Kitgum, Pader, Lira/Agago, Amuria and Katakwi to the west; and Kumi, Sironko and Kapchorwa to the south (UIA, 2016).
The sub- region, is endowed with over 50 different minerals like gold, limestone and marble that have prompted an influx of multiple-extracting companies over the past two decades. ASM mining is essentially informal and nomadic given there is constant in- and out-flux of people at various ASM sites (Houdet et.al 2014).
The study will specifically focus on 3 districts that is to say, Moroto, Amudat and Nakapipiriti because they poses some of the most active gold mining sites e.g. in Rupa sub-county in Moroto, Karita sub-county in Amudat and Acherer sub-county Nakapriripti (Hinton et.al 2011).

Figure 2. Map of Karamoja region in Uganda
3.2 Research Design

Figure 3. Schematic representation of mixed methods approach
A mixed-method approach shall be used to achieve the objectives of this research. This approach will involve the use of a variety of data sources that generates both qualitataive and quantitative data. The research intends to use semi- structured questionnaire survey, key informant interviews, FGDs, field observations, and GI Science techniques to map areas with in the mining areas. The mixed methods approach is useful when undertaking complex research questions with qualitative data providing a thorough understanding of survey questions, and quantitative data allowing for statistical analysis which provides an accurate overview of the data (Driscoll et al. 2007).

This method is based on phenomena under study that will require the views of people in the study area. Qualitative methods place a lot of emphasis and focus on the perceptions, attitudes, views and belief systems of people (Creswell, 2013).These will be measured by descriptions of the respondents under study, as the same events may have different meanings to different people. Qualitative approaches have been criticized due to subjectivity and a perceived lack of scientific rigor in comparison to quantitative methods which focus on exact statistical measurements (Kothari, 2004). Thus this research will allow combined approaches (qualitative and quantitative methods), which will allow the process of methodological triangulation of data for scientific validity and for the provision of a clear and comprehensive picture of issues pertaining environmental hazards and risks associated with ASSGM activities in the region.
3.1.5 Sampling ProcedureThe study to be carried out will undertake a multi sampling technique using both the purposive sampling and simple random sampling procedures.
Purposive sampling as a non-probability technique will be used in selecting key informants and focus groups such as onsite gold miners, District technical officers’ e.g. the DNRO/EO, DCDO, the LC1 and 3 chairpersons, the sub-county chiefs among others. The key informants and the groups will be relevant in providing the general characteristics of the ASGN activities within the mining sites, the ecological risks involved and give measures put in place by the institutions to reduce the risks
Simple random sampling will be used to select households that are in vicinity of the mining sites to respond to the questionnaires. Each household within the study area will have a chance to be selected to respond to the questions asked.

Using the formulae,
…………………………………………………….eqn (1)
Table 1. Households Sample size distribution per district
Districts Popn size (N) per district (UBOS, 2017 estimates) Sample size (n) for households per district. (Population size @ district/Total population) (Total sample size of the total population).
Moroto 110,100 109
Nakapiripiriti 177,100 175
Amudat 118,600 117
Total 405,800 400
Confidence level 95% Accepted error (e) 0.5 3.1.6 Table 2. Data Collection and Analysis
Objectives Data required Sources of data Collection methods Data analysis
To map and characterise artisanal mining activities in Karamoja sub-region
Nature/characteristics of the mining activities
Demographic characteristics such as age, marital status, Gender, time spent in the mining area/ community among others
Site maps Onsite miners,
Households,
District technical officers e.g. DNRO, DCO, LC1 an 3, sub county chiefs Miners, Landsat 8 satellite images (for the year 2008 and 2017) Key informant interviews and Focused group discussions,
Content analysis
Questionnaires,
Descriptive analysis
Chi-square test of association between dependent and independent variables of interest
Remote sensing techniques NDVI to analyse land cover change changes for year 2008-2017
To identify ecological hazards resulting from artisanal small-scale gold mining activities in the sub-region Impacts of artisanal gold mining activities on the environment Miners
Focused group discussions
Content analysis
Households with in the mining areas. Semi-structured questionnaires Descriptive analysis
To investigate peoples’ perception about the ecological risks associated with ASSGM. Environmental hazards and risks that are brought by artisanal gold mining activities Onsite miners and
Focus group discussions (onsite miners).

Content analysis
Households around the mining sites (household heads or responsible child who understands the ecological risks of ASSGM to be taken as sampling units) Semi structured Questionnaires (Households) A semi-quantitative risk matrix with likelihoods and consequences rating will be multiplied to determine the level of ecological risks.
Risk level will be categorized as High, Medium and Low. Probability to produce threats will be assessed on a scale from 0.1 to 1 (0.1 – low 0.5 – Average, 1.0 – high), and the impact on a scale from 10 to 100 (10 – low, 50 – 100 medium – high).

To find out the coping mechanisms employed by miners and households to mitigate the risks Measure employed by both the miners and households to reduce the ecological risks brought up by ASSGM Onsite miners
Focus group discussions
Content analysis,
Households Semi structured questionnaires Descriptive analysis
will be used to determine percentages of the adopted measures to reduce ecological risks in the region
4.0 Bibliography
ADDIN Mendeley Bibliography CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Ackley, M. (2008). Evaluating Environmental Risks in Mining: A perceptual study at the Vatukoula gold mine in Fiji.

Appleton, J. D., Williams, T. M., Orbea, H., & Carrasco, M. (2000). Fluvial Contamination Associated with Artisanal Gold Mining in the Ponce Enríquez , Portovelo-Zaruma and Nambija areas , Ecuador .

Barreto, M. L., Schein, P., Hinton, J., & Hruschka, F. (2017). Economic Contributions of Artisanal and Small-scale Mining in Uganda: Gold and Clay.

Basommi, P. L., Guan, Q., & Cheng, D. (2015). Exploring Land use and Land cover change in the mining areas of Wa East District, Ghana using Satellite Imagery. Open Geosciences, 7(1), 618–626. https://doi.org/10.1515/geo-2015-0058
By, A. R., & Auditor, T. H. E. (n.d.). of the Mining Sector By Ministry of.

Capson, S. (2017). Mining in Uganda, (August), 27. Retrieved from https://www.saferworld.org.uk/downloads/pubdocs/mining-in-uganda.pdf.

Creswell, J.W. 2013. Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative and Mixed Methods Approaches. 4th ed. California: SAGE Publications.

District, B., District, B., Government, L., & Box, P. O. (2012). the Republic of Uganda Bududa District Local Government, (June).

Driscoll, D.L., A Appiah-Yebosh, P Salib, and D.J. Rupert. 2007. “Merging Qualitative and Quantitative Data in Mixed Methods Research: How to and Why Not.” Ecological and Environmental Anthropology 3 (1): 19–28.

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Annex 1 Draft Budget
EQUIPMENT UNIT(S) RATE AMOUNT
FIELD GEARS
Overall 1 30,000 30,000
Boots 1-pair 25,000 25,000
Audio recorder 1 50,000 50,000
Gloves 1 pair 15,000 15,000
GPS 1 400,000 400,000
Helmet 20,000 20,000
SUB TOTAL 540,000
WELFARE
9 Transport 400,000 400,000
10 Feeding 300,000 300,000
11 Airtime 30,000 30,000
12 Accommodation 500,000 500,000
13 Miscellaneous 200,000 200,000
SUB TOTAL 1,200,000
STATIONARY SERVICES
13 Typing 20,000 20,000
14 Photocopying 50,000 50,000
15 Binding 50,000 50,000
SUB TOTAL 120,000
Interpreter
16 Interpreters 3 per district 100,000 300,000
SUB TOTAL 300,000
GRAND TOTAL 2,660,000
Annex 2 Work plan
YEAR 2018 2019
Activity Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar April May Jun July Aug Sept Oct Nov
Proposal submission Data collection Data coding and entry Data analysis Writing and interpretation of findings Discussion and presentation of results Compiling and binding thesis Submission of thesis Dissemination of results to the public Publication of the article

192659053975
MAKERERE UNIVERSITY
ECOLOGICAL RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH ARTISANAL SMALL-SCALE GOLD MINING IN KARAMOJA SUB-REGION, UGANDA
Senyonga Derick
Student No.210018187
Reg.no 2017/HD02/3244U
A Research Proposal Submitted to the Directorate of Research and Graduate Training, as a partial fulfilment for the award of a Master of Science in Disaster Risk Management
September 2018
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TOC o “1-3” h z u CHAPTER ONE PAGEREF _Toc518413765 h 31.1 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc518413766 h 31.2 Problem Statement PAGEREF _Toc518413768 h 51.3 The Study Objectives PAGEREF _Toc518413770 h 51.3.2 Specific Objectives PAGEREF _Toc518413771 h 51.4 Research Questions PAGEREF _Toc518413772 h 61.5 Hypothesis PAGEREF _Toc518413773 h 61. Justification of the Study PAGEREF _Toc518413777 h 61.7 Significance of the Study PAGEREF _Toc518413778 h 7CHAPTER TWO PAGEREF _Toc518413779 h 92.0 Literature Review PAGEREF _Toc518413780 h 92.1 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc518413781 h 92.1.1 Trend of Artisan Small Scale mining PAGEREF _Toc518413782 h 92.1.2 Environment and Disaster Risks PAGEREF _Toc518413783 h 102.1.3 Characteristics of Artisan Small-Scale Gold Mining PAGEREF _Toc518413784 h 112.1.4 Livelihood and ASSGM Nexus PAGEREF _Toc518413785 h 112.1.5 Impacts of ASSGM on Environment. PAGEREF _Toc518413786 h 122.1.6 Understanding Disaster risks associated with ASSGM PAGEREF _Toc518413787 h 122.1.7 Gold in Karamoja Region PAGEREF _Toc518413788 h 132.1.8 Legislative Framework of Mining in Uganda PAGEREF _Toc518413789 h 13CHAPTER THREE PAGEREF _Toc518413790 h 143.0 Methodology PAGEREF _Toc518413791 h 143.1 Description of study area PAGEREF _Toc518413792 h 143.1. Location PAGEREF _Toc518413793 h 143.1.2 General Geology PAGEREF _Toc518413794 h 153.1.5 Sampling Procedure PAGEREF _Toc518413795 h 183.1.6 Data collection methods PAGEREF _Toc518413796 h 193.1.7 Data Analysis PAGEREF _Toc518413797 h 204.0 Bibliography PAGEREF _Toc518413798 h 21
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Artisanal and small-scale mining refers to mining by individuals, groups, families or cooperatives with minimal or no mechanisation, often in the informal (illegal) sector of the market (Hentshel et.al, 2002). Despite many attempts, a common definition of ASM has yet to be established (Ibid, 2002). In this study Artisanal Small Scale mining will refer to gold mining activities that are informal and use rudmenatlly technologies in the mineral extraction.

Artisanal and Small-Scale mining (ASM) has experienced amassed growth in recent years due to the rising value of mineral prices and the increasing difficulty of earning a living from agriculture and other rural-income-generating activities (IGF, 2017). An estimated Worldwide that, 40.5 million people were directly engaged in ASM in 2017, up from 30 million in 2014, 13 million in 1999 and 6 million in 1993 (Ibid, 2017). That compares with only 7 million people working in industrial mining in 2013 (Ibid, 2017) Worldwide. ASM is important for the economically vulnerable and is likely to continue to provide livelihoods for millions worldwide (PricewaterhouseCoopers, 2013). ASM play a crucial role in poverty alleviation and rural development; as most of those involved are poor and mining represents the most promising, if not the only, income opportunity available (Ibid, 2013).
However, the sector is better known for its high environmental costs (MMSD, 2003). ASM has devastating impacts on the environment, such as deforestation, burning of bushes and use of harmful chemicals like mercury which in turn may cause ecological disasters leading to loss of human lives and properties (Cube-Phiri1 (et. al 2015).

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Environmental disasters are disasters to the natural environment mostly due to human activities such as over-exploitation of natural resources and unsustainable development that result in disease and death of living beings (Rahman, 2014). Environmental disasters can result from technical accidents, human, technological or mechanical failure or carelessness (Ibid, 2014). The release of mercury by (ASGM) is estimated at 1,400 tons per year in 2011 according to the Minamata Convention (2017). Mercury is difficult to contain and can be toxic at even very small doses (). It can be transported long distances by air or water, poisoning the soil and waterways, and eventually making its way into the food chain (IGF 2017). These environmental impacts are a result of destructive mining, wasteful mineral extraction, processing practices and techniques used by the artisanal small-scale miners.
In most developing countries, artisanal gold mining remains largely informal and unregulated and miners rely heavily on inexpensive, outdated and polluting technologies and chemicals, such as mercury (Nabaasa, 2016). Environmental contamination by mercury is of concern in the countries of Latin America, South East Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa which have witnessed an expansion of artisanal gold mining during the past three decades. Problems of mercury (Hg) contamination arising from gold mining in the Amazon River basin of Brazil have been widely documented (Lacerda and Salomons, 1998) yet there remains relatively little quantitative data for other major artisanal mining areas worldwide (Appleton et al, 2000).

Artisanal Small-scale Mining (ASM), in Uganda, refers to mining activities that are predominantly informally organized and un-mechanized (Houdet et.al 2014). According to the Independent newspaper, since 2008, was the onset of the gold rush across Uganda (Musoke, 2017). Officials from the Directorate of Geological Survey and Mines (DGSM) say artisanal and small-scale gold mining activities have risen by 40% across Uganda’s gold-rich areas of Karamoja, Buhweju and Ibanda in the west and Namayingo and Busia in south-eastern Uganda. The Ugandan government still regards ASGM as an illegal practice. As such, there is no regulatory and policy framework to guide artisanal mining operations (Nabaasa, 2016).

1.2Problem StatementThere is an emergent ecological challenge in Uganda associated with artisan and Small-scale gold mining (ASSGM) practices which are on increase in many parts of the country with thousands of local communities currently engaged in the mining practices (Kinene, 2012). Artisanal mining is associated with a number of environmental impacts, including deforestation and land degradation, open pits which pose animal traps and health hazards, and heavy metals contamination of land (water and soil), dust and noise pollution (Kamga et.al 2018). The release of high quantities of sediment, (along with metals and other contaminants) into local water bodies, pose environmental risks (Macdonald et.al, 2015). The environmental degradation associated with excavating large volumes of soil can affect groundwater when the water-table level is reached, as well as the water quality of adjacent drainages (Hebert Nabaasa, 2016). Mercury use in gold extraction is a time bomb to over 20,000 lives that are exposed to it in Uganda (Mukasa, 2017). Mercury accumulate in the kidney, liver, skin and lungs, causing permanent mental disability and a range of other conditions such as blood clotting and cancer.

It is therefore the focus of this study to understand the environmental damage and risks associated with ASSGM in Karamoja region by assessing the ecological risks associated with artisan-small scale gold mining activities. In the research study, key variables of interest will be considered from the demographic such as (gender, age, marital status etc.), gold extraction environmental damage and the associated risks will be examined.1.3The Study Objectives1.3.1 General objective
To assess the ecological risks associated with artisanal small scale gold mining activities in the vulnerable communities in Karamoja region
1.3.2 Specific ObjectivesTo map and characterise artisanal mining activities in Karamoja sub-region.
To identify ecological hazards resulting from artisanal small-scale gold mining activities in the sub-region
To investigate community’s perception about the ecological risks associated with ASSGM.

To find out the coping mechanisms employed by artisans to mitigate the risks.

1.4 Research QuestionsWhat are the physical-social characteristics of ASSGM in Karamoja sub-region?
Which ecological hazards associated with Artisanal gold mining activities in Karamoja region?
What are communities perception about ecological risks associated with the ASSGM in the sub-region?
How are the communities coping with the ecological risks?
1.6Justification of the Study The Sendai Framework (2015-2030), priority no.1 is about “Understanding disaster risk where policies and practices for disaster risk management should be based on an understanding of risks in all dimensions of vulnerability, capacity, exposure of persons and assets, hazard characteristics and the environment. Such knowledge is a leverage for pre-disaster risk assessment, prevention, mitigation, development and implementation of appropriate preparedness and effective response to disasters”.

Kinene, (2012) acknowledges that there is an emerging ecological challenge in Uganda associated with artisanal gold mining practices which are said to be on the increase in many parts of the country with thousands of local communities currently engaged in the mining practices. However, there is limited understanding of these risks in all their dimensions.

The study intends therefore, to provide a better understanding of the nature and extent of environmental problems and their associated risks to ecological disasters, so that households, miners and the responsible authorities better prepare for any potential disaster that can ensue due to ASSGM practises in Karamoja region.1.7 Significance of the StudyThe results of the study will be important in informing policy, new and existing knowledge and other important aspects that can influence change amongst different stakeholders.

Mineral extraction is the most destructive industry in the Environment, and Artisanal Small-Scale mining contributes to this destruction (Ncube-Phiri et.al, 2015). The unregulated actions of artisanal miners on the environment such as clear cutting forests/vegetation, river dredging, and use of toxic chemicals such as mercury and cyanide possess a high threat to accumulation of disaster risks such as the Minamata disease outbreak, food shortage, land degradation among others.

The study will provide a basis for understanding the underlying ecological risks associated with ASSGM in the Karamoja region in its concepts of exposure, and hazard characteristic in the vulnerable communities.

The findings can be used by key decision makers involved in environment and disaster risk reduction planning at both the District Local Governments and community level through their committees to reduce/mitigate the possible disasters.
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW2.1 IntroductionArtisanal gold mining (AGM) takes place throughout the world, but is particularly widespread in developing countries in Africa, Asia, Oceania, Central and South America (Hentschel, 2003). Vulnerable populations are more at risk to disasters – poverty exacerbates vulnerabilities, especially for poor communities that are heavily dependent on ecosystem services for their livelihoods and for physical protection (Sudmeier et.al, 2013). Ecosystem degradation and loss have led to serious impacts on human well-being: these include reduced availability of goods and services to local communities, increased spread of diseases and reduced economic opportunities (Sudmeier et.al, 2013). Artisanal small-scale mining (ASM) has devastating impacts on the environment, such as deforestation, over-stripping of overburden, burning of bushes and use of harmful chemicals like mercury (Ncube-Phiri et.al, 2015) that contributes to ecological risk accumulation.
2.1.1 Trends in Small Scale Artisanal miningArtisanal and small-scale mining is recognized as a considerable source of revenue for millions of people in about 80 countries worldwide (World Gold Council, 2017; World Bank, 2013). ASM takes place in diverse regions of the world, mostly in the global south—sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, Oceania, Central and South America (IGF, 2017). The term “artisanal and small-scale” has been defined in various ways, often characterized in terms of the number of miners, the production capacity of a mine, the level of mechanization or size of capital investments (International Labour Organization (ILO), 1999; World Gold Council, 2017). In 1993, about six million people were believed to be working in ASM; in 1999 the International Labour Organization (ILO) revised this number to 13 million miners (including women and children) and estimated that about 80–100 million people depended on this activity at that time (ILO, 1999). In recent years, the number of people directly involved in ASM has more than doubled, reaching about 30 million people in 2014 as a result of such things as rising mineral prices and the increasing difficulty of earning a living from alternative activities like agriculture (Garcia et al., 2015; Seccatore et al., 2014). According to current data from the Artisanal and Small-scale Mining Knowledge Sharing Archive website (2017), direct ASM numbers might have reached 40.5 million in 2017. Some sources estimate a much higher number up-to 100 million ASM operators compared to seven million people working in industrial mining (World Bank, 2013).

In Africa, about 9 million ASM operators in Africa and about 54 million people whose livelihoods depend on the sector (Ledwaba & Nhlengetwa, 2016 Persaud et al., 2017). The Africa Minerals Development Centre (AMDC) considers this a “conservative estimate,” citing an important lack of data on ASM, as the activity is often informal and mostly operates illegally in several African countries (AMDC, 2015).

In 2011, according to the data provided by (Hilson and McQuilken , 2014), the number of people dependent on ASM activity in Africa was between four and 12 times the number of ASM operators, but mostly around six times the ASM miner population (e.g., in the Central African Republic, Chad, Côte d’Ivoire, DRC).

Significant migration of the workforce-within countries and between neighbouring or other countries-in an aspect of ASM makes it difficult to generate more accurate estimates (IGF, 2017). The ASM population in Tanzania is characterized by migrating from one site to another; in Geita, for example, Aizawa (2016) observed that 12 per cent of the mining population comes from outside Geita. According to the author, the miners who work as diggers are more mobile than those who are primary mining licence (PML) holders, who operate their licensed areas for years (Ibid, 2017).

Uganda has seen a mass migration of people looking for gold (Nabaasa, 2016. Over the past decade, Uganda’s ASM sector is believed to have grown significantly in terms of both production and employment (Barreto et.al 2018). With this growth, disputes with larger private sector actors seem to have increased in frequency and intensity, resulting in greater awareness of ASM by government and civil society (Ibid 2018). Given high rates of informality, low contributions to official state revenues, and lack of robust statistics on ASM, much of this attention mainly has focused on negative aspects of the sector (Ibid, 2018). This includes the crude, labor-intensive methods and related environmental risks (Ibid, 2018).

Conceptual review
The conceptual frame work is guided by the Corvalan (1999) cause-effect framework. This framework underlines the interlinkage of Drivers, Pressure, State, Impact and Responses (DPSIR) which are used to represent the indicators needed to enable feedback to policy makers on the environmental quality and risks resulting from human alteration of the environment.

According to the DPSIR framework, there is a chain of causal links starting with driving forces (human activities such as mining) through ‘Pressures’ (emissions, waste, deforestation) to ‘State’ (physical, chemical and biological) and ‘Impacts’ on ecosystem and functions and eventually leading to political ‘Responses’ (priotisation, legislation, target settings, indicators) (EEA 1998).

A ‘driving force’ is a need which can be primary or secondary. Primary driving forces for an individual for example, is the need for shelter, food and water while secondary forces are a need for mobility, entertainment and culture. For and industrial sector a driving force could be a need for profits while producing at low cost, while for a nation, driving force could be the need for unemployment levels low.

Driving forces lead to human activities such as artisanal gold mining as a means of meeting the basic needs. The activities associated with ASGM exert ‘pressure’ on the environment through, excessive use of environmental resources such as gold, changes in the land use and emissions through (chemicals, waste, and radiation, noise) to air, water and soil.

As a result of pressures, the ‘state’ of the various components of the environment such as air, water and soil are affected in relation to the functions that these components play hence ecological hazards. The ‘state’ of the environment is thus the combination of physical, chemical, human and biological conditions (EEA, 2003). The changes in the conditions brought about by artisanal gold mining activities determines the quality of the environment that may result in the un-acceptable ecological risks that can cause loss of human life. In other words the changes in the state may have impacts on the functioning of ecosystem and their life supporting abilities (EEA, 1999)
A ‘response’ by society individual or policy makers is as a result of un-desirable conditions/risks and can affect any part of the chain between the driving forces and the impacts.

Figure 1. Conceptual framework
Thematic review
2.1.2 Nature of Artisanal Small-Scale Gold Mining (ASSGM)
Artisanal gold mining industry is motivated less by adventure and more by survival amongst the people with high levels of poverty. Poverty-driven miners rely on inexpensive, outdated, polluting technologies and chemicals such as mercury which has high environmental risks (Hinton, 2011).

Mining operations are generally destructive to the environment and can cause physical disturbances to the landscape, creating eyesores such as waste-rock piles and open pits. Particularly, surface mining requires large areas of land to be cleared so that the earth could be dug into by the miners causing harm to the environment and affecting arable lands thereby threatening food production (NEMA 2011).

Categories of ASGM mines – Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation – SDC, 2011 categorize ASGM as,
1. Permanent artisanal mining. Full time, year round activity. For the involved People, mining is frequently the only economic activity or sometimes accompanied by other acti ities like farming, herding or other extractive tasks of indigenous groups
2. Seasonal artisanal mining. Seasonal switching of activities or seasonal migration of people into artisanal mining areas, e.g. during idle agricultural periods to supplement their annual incomes
3. Rush-type artisanal mining. Massive migration based on the perception that the expected income opportunity from recently discovered deposit far exceeds the current actual income of the people who are lured into it. It is not uncommon to observe former rush areas converting into new communities and rush miners converting into settlers
4. Shock-push artisanal mining. A clearly poverty driven activity, emerging after recent loss of employment in other sectors, conflicts or natural disasters. Many of the individuals, mostly itinerant and poorly educated, have no other choice and miners remain trapped in the poverty cycle.

The International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED) and the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) characterize ASSGM by a number of conditions:
Lack of or limited use of mechanization, and a lot of physically demanding work
Low level of occupational safety and health care
Inefficiency in exploitation and processing of mineral production (low recovery value)
Exploitation of marginal and/or very small deposits, which are not economically exploitable by mechanized mining
Low level of productivity
Periodic operation by local peasants by season or according to the market price development
Lack of social security
Insufficient consideration of environmental issues
2.1.3 Ecological hazards and risks associated with Artisan Small scale gold mining
Artisanal Gold Mining in most developing countries is still largely informal and unregulated and as a result, small-scale miners rely heavily on inexpensive, outdated, polluting technologies and chemicals chief among them mercury with high risks on the environment
In Uganda, artisanal and small-scale gold mining is one of the emerging forms of Environmental degradation in different districts (Nabaasa, 2016). The mining sites in Uganda encompass various ecological areas, which range from fragile aquatic systems to fertile agro-ecological zones and rocky areas. On the Kisita, Kamalengera, Tira and Amonikakine mining sites, gold is recovered from hard-rock reefs (Ibid, 2016). Most of the gold is recovered from alluvial material and potential agricultural fields (Ibid, 2016)
2.1.3.1 Exposure to mercury/cyanide
Artisanal gold mining is the leading cause of global mercury pollution, ahead of coal-fired power plants (Hinton, 2011). In addition to its impact on the environment, mercury is extremely harmful to human health (Hinton, 2011). The amount of vapour that mining activities release has been proven to damage the kidneys, liver, brain, heart, lungs, colon and immune system (Ibid, 2011). Chronic exposure to mercury may lead to fatigue, weight loss, tremors and behavioural changes. In children and developing foetuses, mercury can impair neurological development (Ibid, 2011).Water from mining operation has the potential to contaminate surface water because of the Cyanide and mercury used in gold extraction. Cyanide and mercury can cause harm to aquatic and wildlife (Bulawayo Commissioner, 2007). Humans may be exposed to cyanide by breathing in HCN gas, through contaminated drinking water, eating foods containing cyanides, or by touching soil contaminated with cyanide (Ackley, 2008). In surface waters, the majority of cyanide will evaporate as HCN gas under most natural conditions. Exposure to large concentrations of cyanide over a short period of time may result in acute cyanide poisoning (Ibid, 2008).

2.1.3.2 Ground collapsing
Mining leaves openings both on the surface and underground and as a result, fractures can develop leading to collapse of the ground. The impact can be catastrophic if the fractures or subsidence occurs where there are structures on the surface. Needless to say the impact are disastrous if subsidence leads to trapping and subsequently loss of human life underground. The impact is high during the operation stage especially when blasting and during wet periods (Bulawayo Commissioner, 2007). Several people have reportedly been killed in Uganda by mining collapses and on a single mining site, an average of 10 people die annually (MDLG 2013). According to an article published in the Daily Monitor newspaper on 10 November 2014, 12 people were killed and several others injured when a gold mine at the Luginji mining site in the Mubende District’s Kitumbi Sub-county caved in (Nabaasa, 2016)
2.1.3.3 Losses and modification of soil profile
Mining activities by nature are extractive that is, involve the removal of the soil from underground on to the surface (Pablo, 2006). The result is that the natural arrangement of the soil layers (profile) is altered. The soil Extracted from the deep down the earth’s crust is not suitable for crop/plant growth. If not properly mitigated, the effect can have significant modification of the soil structure and effect of plant growth (Pablo, 2006).

2.1.3.4 Soil erosion and siltation
Erosion is likely to affect mining operation especially during construction phase and when land is cleared and soil is disturbed. Trenches and roads loosen the soil and this leads to erosion. Soil erosion has significant impact as it contaminates water bodies and modification of the soil profile as the topsoil is eroded (Bulawayo Mining Commissioner 2007).

2.1.3.4 Deforestation
Vegetation in form of natural forest or crop plantation is usually the first ”casualty” to suffer total or partial destruction or degradation during the exploration and exploitation of minerals in a locality (Kamga, et.al 2018). The deforestation and land excavation during gold mining operations results into siltation of the nearby water sources through discharge of tailings into waterways, reduces light penetration and dissolved oxygen levels, thereby jeopardizing fisheries, and may result in flooding (Hinton, 2002). Deforestation can significantly impact women and families, due to the importance of forests for fuelwood and, sometimes, food and medicine (Nabaasa, 2016).

2.1.4 Risk reduction strategies in artisan gold mining communities
An understanding of the ecological risks associated with gold mining is critical to decision-making, planning and implementation of development projects that are competing for the same resources in the gold mining area, for example rural, urban, legal mining, illegal mining, and irrigated commercial and subsistence agriculture (Ncube-Phiri, et.al 2015). Individuals that accurately know the ecological risks and benefits associated with mining, may make informed decisions about living and working in a mining community (Ackley, 2008).

CHAPTER THREE: DATA AND METHODS
3.0 INTRODUCTION
The study will adopt both quantitative and qualitative research designs. Quantitative design basically involve numerical description of data. This description is precise since it specifically quantify the phenomena characteristic using statistics analysis inform of percentages, ranks, mean among others. Though the approach is precise, it hinder a wider coverage of human perceptions and behaviour hence the need to supplement the design with qualitative design.
Hitchcock and Huges (1995) acknowledge the strengths of a qualitative approach as, “Approaches that enable the researcher to learn at first hand, about the social world they are investigating by means of involvement and participation in that world through a focus upon what individual actors say and do”. Qualitative research therefore uses naturalistic approach that seeks to understand phenomenon in a context specific setting such as what individual believe, know and understand about a particular issue.

3.1.2 General Geology of Karamoja sub-region
Uganda lies within the African plate, which is a continental crust that contains Archaean cratons that date at least 2700 Million years (Hinton et.al 2010). Within Karamoja, major structures that run through the region include shear belts (extended zones of rock fracturing and faulting), which occur in Late Precambrian age rocks, and large areas covered by Archean rocks (Hinton et.al 2010). This may be significant as most gold occurrence have been found associated with quartz vein (Often found in shear zones in intrusive and volcanic sedimentary rock of P Proterozoic and possibly Archean age (Hinton et.al 2010)
3.1Description of study area3.1.1LocationKaramoja sub-region, is located in north-eastern Uganda with seven districts: Kaabong, Abim, Kotido, Moroto, Amudat, Napak and Nakapiripirit. The region borders Kenya to the east, South Sudan to the north and the districts of Kitgum, Pader, Lira/Agago, Amuria and Katakwi to the west; and Kumi, Sironko and Kapchorwa to the south (UIA, 2016).
The sub- region, is endowed with over 50 different minerals like gold, limestone and marble that have prompted an influx of multiple-extracting companies over the past two decades. ASM mining is essentially informal and nomadic given there is constant in- and out-flux of people at various ASM sites (Houdet et.al 2014).
The study will specifically focus on 3 districts that is to say, Moroto, Amudat and Nakapipiriti because they poses some of the most active gold mining sites e.g. in Rupa sub-county in Moroto, Karita sub-county in Amudat and Acherer sub-county Nakapriripti (Hinton et.al 2011).

Figure 2. Map of Karamoja region in Uganda
3.2 Research Design

Figure 3. Schematic representation of mixed methods approach
A mixed-method approach shall be used to achieve the objectives of this research. This approach will involve the use of a variety of data sources that generates both qualitataive and quantitative data. The research intends to use semi- structured questionnaire survey, key informant interviews, FGDs, field observations, and GI Science techniques to map areas with in the mining areas. The mixed methods approach is useful when undertaking complex research questions with qualitative data providing a thorough understanding of survey questions, and quantitative data allowing for statistical analysis which provides an accurate overview of the data (Driscoll et al. 2007).

This method is based on phenomena under study that will require the views of people in the study area. Qualitative methods place a lot of emphasis and focus on the perceptions, attitudes, views and belief systems of people (Creswell, 2013).These will be measured by descriptions of the respondents under study, as the same events may have different meanings to different people. Qualitative approaches have been criticized due to subjectivity and a perceived lack of scientific rigor in comparison to quantitative methods which focus on exact statistical measurements (Kothari, 2004). Thus this research will allow combined approaches (qualitative and quantitative methods), which will allow the process of methodological triangulation of data for scientific validity and for the provision of a clear and comprehensive picture of issues pertaining environmental hazards and risks associated with ASSGM activities in the region.
3.1.5 Sampling ProcedureThe study to be carried out will undertake a multi sampling technique using both the purposive sampling and simple random sampling procedures.
Purposive sampling as a non-probability technique will be used in selecting key informants and focus groups such as onsite gold miners, District technical officers’ e.g. the DNRO/EO, DCDO, the LC1 and 3 chairpersons, the sub-county chiefs among others. The key informants and the groups will be relevant in providing the general characteristics of the ASGN activities within the mining sites, the ecological risks involved and give measures put in place by the institutions to reduce the risks
Simple random sampling will be used to select households that are in vicinity of the mining sites to respond to the questionnaires. Each household within the study area will have a chance to be selected to respond to the questions asked.

Using the formulae,
…………………………………………………….eqn (1)
Table 1. Households Sample size distribution per district
Districts Popn size (N) per district (UBOS, 2017 estimates) Sample size (n) for households per district. (Population size @ district/Total population) (Total sample size of the total population).
Moroto 110,100 109
Nakapiripiriti 177,100 175
Amudat 118,600 117
Total 405,800 400
Confidence level 95% Accepted error (e) 0.5 3.1.6 Table 2. Data Collection and Analysis
Objectives Data required Sources of data Collection methods Data analysis
To map and characterise artisanal mining activities in Karamoja sub-region
Nature/characteristics of the mining activities
Demographic characteristics such as age, marital status, Gender, time spent in the mining area/ community among others
Site maps Onsite miners,
Households,
District technical officers e.g. DNRO, DCO, LC1 an 3, sub county chiefs Miners, Landsat 8 satellite images (for the year 2008 and 2017) Key informant interviews and Focused group discussions,
Content analysis
Questionnaires,
Descriptive analysis
Chi-square test of association between dependent and independent variables of interest
Remote sensing techniques NDVI to analyse land cover change changes for year 2008-2017
To identify ecological hazards resulting from artisanal small-scale gold mining activities in the sub-region Impacts of artisanal gold mining activities on the environment Miners
Focused group discussions
Content analysis
Households with in the mining areas. Semi-structured questionnaires Descriptive analysis
To investigate peoples’ perception about the ecological risks associated with ASSGM. Environmental hazards and risks that are brought by artisanal gold mining activities Onsite miners and
Focus group discussions (onsite miners).

Content analysis
Households around the mining sites (household heads or responsible child who understands the ecological risks of ASSGM to be taken as sampling units) Semi structured Questionnaires (Households) A semi-quantitative risk matrix with likelihoods and consequences rating will be multiplied to determine the level of ecological risks.
Risk level will be categorized as High, Medium and Low. Probability to produce threats will be assessed on a scale from 0.1 to 1 (0.1 – low 0.5 – Average, 1.0 – high), and the impact on a scale from 10 to 100 (10 – low, 50 – 100 medium – high).

To find out the coping mechanisms employed by miners and households to mitigate the risks Measure employed by both the miners and households to reduce the ecological risks brought up by ASSGM Onsite miners
Focus group discussions
Content analysis,
Households Semi structured questionnaires Descriptive analysis
will be used to determine percentages of the adopted measures to reduce ecological risks in the region
4.0 Bibliography
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Annex 1 Draft Budget
EQUIPMENT UNIT(S) RATE AMOUNT
FIELD GEARS
Overall 1 30,000 30,000
Boots 1-pair 25,000 25,000
Audio recorder 1 50,000 50,000
Gloves 1 pair 15,000 15,000
GPS 1 400,000 400,000
Helmet 20,000 20,000
SUB TOTAL 540,000
WELFARE
9 Transport 400,000 400,000
10 Feeding 300,000 300,000
11 Airtime 30,000 30,000
12 Accommodation 500,000 500,000
13 Miscellaneous 200,000 200,000
SUB TOTAL 1,200,000
STATIONARY SERVICES
13 Typing 20,000 20,000
14 Photocopying 50,000 50,000
15 Binding 50,000 50,000
SUB TOTAL 120,000
Interpreter
16 Interpreters 3 per district 100,000 300,000
SUB TOTAL 300,000
GRAND TOTAL 2,660,000
Annex 2 Work plan
YEAR 2018 2019
Activity Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar April May Jun July Aug Sept Oct Nov
Proposal submission Data collection Data coding and entry Data analysis Writing and interpretation of findings Discussion and presentation of results Compiling and binding thesis Submission of thesis Dissemination of results to the public Publication of the article

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