(1) backgrounds and experiences. (13) Listen to the

(1) Effective communicators know themselves, accept their own feelings, develop skills to express themselves directly and unambiguously. (2) Be forthright and credible in that the non-verbal cues should reinforce the verbal communication.

(3) Learning to take the perspective of another is absolutely critical to communicating. (4) Establish rapport with the other party involved in communication by conveying respect and empathy. (5) Encourage the other person to explore, define and clarify the situation. (6) Assume the other person’s goodwill. (7) Respond to other people’s feelings and information. (8) Show the listener or the speaker that you are interested in their opinions.

(9) Help the other person to see the situation objectively. (10) Rephrase or summarize the information given by others from time-to-time. Seek clarifications whenever required. (11) Spot resistance, apprehension, avoidance and other signs of problems or difficulties. Handle gently.

(12) Become aware of your own and other people’s cultural backgrounds and experiences. (13) Listen to the entire context, without missing the details. (14) Maintain appropriate eye-contact. (15) Do not fidget nervously – relax. (16) Actively seek feedback. (17) To focus receiver’s attention on the message, the sender should engage in attention getting behaviors such as varying the volume, repeating the message and offering rewards. (18) The effects of distortion can be reduced by using the grapevine (an informal system of communication) as an additional channel for disseminating information and by constantly monitoring it for accuracy.

(19) Help the other person to focus on the key ideas, core messages and pertinent issues.


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