(iii) gardens by the government since 1992. (iii)

(iii) The sundari trees are found and they have durable hard timber. (iv) Palm, coconut, keora, agar also grow here. (B) This region is the natural habitat of the Royal Bengal Tiger. Turtles, crocodiles, gharials and snakes are also found here 2. What are the steps taken by the government to protect flora and fauna in India? Government of India has taken many steps of protect flora and fauna: (i) Many bio-reserves have been set up in the country to protect flora and fauna in their natural habitat.

(ii) Financial and technical assistance is provided too many Botanical gardens by the government since 1992. (iii) Project Tiger, Projects Rhino, and Project Great India. Bustard and many other eco-developmental projects have been introduced. (iv) Wildlife Protection Act was implemented in India in 1972. Hunting is banned and defaulters are to be punished. 3. Explain three steps taken by the government to protect the wildlife.

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Steps taken by govt to protect wildlife: (i) 14 bio-reserves have been set up. (ii) Financial and technical assistance is provided to many Botanical Gardens by the government since 1992. (iii) Project Tiger, Project Rhino, Project Great Indian Bustard and many other eco-developmental projects. (iv) 89 National Parks, 490 wildlife sanctuaries and Zoological gardens are set up to take care of Natural heritage, {any three) 4 what is a bio-reserve? For what purpose have Bio-reserve’s been set up in a country? Name any two bio-reserves along with the states where they are situated. (A)A protected area reserved for the conservation of endangered species of flora and fauna in their natural habitat of bio-reserve. (B) Purposes: i. In biosphere reserve, endangered species of animals and plants are protected. ii.

This important heritage of plants and animals is transmitted to the future generations in all its natural vigor and glory. iii. The surrounding areas are reserved for research work for the betterment of flora and fauna. (C) Reserve – State (1) Nanda Devi – Uttarakhand (2) Nokrek – Meghalaya (3) Manas – Assam (4) Sunderban – West Bengal (5) Similipal – Orissa (6) Panchmari – Madhya Pradesh 5. Give examples, how the natural ecosystem is being disturbed by humans excessive interference and explain what steps are being taken to protect the ecosystem? (i) Deforestation leading to soil erosion, floods and droughts and rise in desertification. (ii) Excessive hunting of animals has led to extinction of species. (iii) Rapid rise in population leading to over-exploitation of resources.

Steps to protect the ecosystem: (i) Proper planning to conserve the forest resources and undertaking afforestation. (ii) Steps to control environmental pollution. (iii) Setting up of national parks, zoological gardens, bio-reserves to protect the wildlife.

6. Distinguish between flora and fauna. Flora: (i) The flora of a country consists of plant kingdom of that country.

(ii) It covers trees in the forests, other flowering and non-flowering trees grown by man, grassland, scrubs, ferns, etc. (iii) India possesses about 47,000 different species of plants and 5,000 of them are exclusively found in India. Fauna: (i) The fauna of a country consists of birds, fish and animals. (ii) It also includes amphibians, reptiles, mammals, small insects and worms. (iii) The fauna of India is quite rich and varied. There are about 89,000 species in India. 7.

What is a bio-reserve? Give two examples. Bio-reserve is a scheme to protect and conserve bio-diversity. The central area preserves the flora and fauna.

The surrounding zone is utilized for research and experiments. The periphery is used for agricultural research and development. Examples Nilgiri biosphere reserve and Nanda Devi biosphere reserve Name two animals having habitat in tropical and montage type of vegetation.

8 Name two animals having habitat in tropical and montage type of vegetation Tropical Vegetation: Tiger and Elephant. Montane Vegetation: Kashmir Stag and Yak 9. Quite a few species of plants and animals are endangered. Why? (1) Sheer out of greed man has been cutting the trees indiscriminately as a result of which many species of plants have become extinct while others are on the verge of being endangered. (2) Certain unsocial elements and contractors have killing different animals-tigers, lions, rhinoceroses, many beautiful birds etc. in order to pocket huge amounts. (3) The increasing population is also much responsible for the extinction and endangered of quite a number of plants and animals. 10.

Write three measures to conserve Ecosystem. (i) Deforestation should be stopped. (ii) Killing of animals should be stopped.

(iii) By developing more sanctuaries, national parks and biosphere reserves etc. 11. Give a brief account of wildlife in India.

(i) India is rich in its wildlife. It has more than 89,000 of animal species, more than 1200 species of birds and about 2500 species of fish. (ii) Elephants are found in the wet forests of Assam, Karnataka and Kerala.

One-horned rhinoceros live in swampy and marshy lands of Assam and North-west Bengal. (iii) Rann of Kachchh and Thar Desert are habitat of wild asses and camels. Lions are found in Gir hills of Gujarat and Tigers in the Sunderbans of West Bengal. (iv) The Himalayas harbor wild variety of animals, e.g., yaks, snow-leopards, bear, Tibetan antelope bhral (blue sheep), musk-deer, kiang (Tibetan wild ass)] etc. (v) Siberian cranes migrate in large number during winter in marshy areas of Rann of Kachchh and Bharatpur (Rajasthan). India is also famous for variety of deer species, e.

g: Chinkara, Barasingha, Sambhar, Chowsingha, Black buck, etc. (any three) 12. What is a National Park? Give two examples from India.

A national park is relatively large area where one or several ecosystems exist and where plant and animal species, geomorphological sites and habitats are of special educative and receptive interests, e.g., Jim Corbett in Uttarakhand, Gir in Gujarat, Shivpuri in Maharashtra, Simlipal in Orissa 13.

Name two endangered species of wildlife. Discuss one point each about project Tiger and Rhino project. Endangered species are: (a) Tiger (b) Lion (c) Elephant (d) Rhino (e) Indian Bustard Project Tiger has been a great success. Periodic census are undertaken to find out the latest position. Tiger reserves are at Jim Corbett Park and Simlipal, etc.

The one-horned Rhino lives in the marshy lands of Assam and North-west Bengal. In Assam, the two Rhino reserves are Kaziranga and Manas 14. Name three biosphere reserves in India which have been included in the world network of biosphere reserve. (i) Sunderbans in West Bengal (ii) Nanda Devi in Uttarakhand. (iii) Gulf of Mannar in Tamil Nadu.

(iv) Nilgiris at the trijunction of Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka.

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