1. INTRODUCTION:1.1 Definitionof pesticide: Achemical or biological substance, intended to eradicate, controlling all typeof pests, vectors causing disease to human beings or animals and undesirable of plants or animals species. Whereasthe pesticides derived from natural materials like plants, bacteria, and mineraldeposits are called bio-pesticides (ICAR, 2009). And some pesticides derivedfrom chemicals are called synthetic pesticides, while synthetic pesticides aretoxins and posture long duration hazards to the environment and human beingsthrough their perseverance in nature and animals body tissue. Chemicalinsecticides consists of organochlorines (Ex: DDT,) are disrupting the Na/Kbalance of the nerve fibers.
These all are bioaccumulates, while organophosphatesand carbamates are inhibiting the acetylcholinesterase enzyme allowingacetylcholine causes symptoms like paralysis/ weakness the insect’s body. Organophosphatesare toxic to vertebrates. While carbamatesare less toxic as compare to organophosphates (9).1.2Chemical pesticides:In the mid -1930sto 1950s chemical pesticides intensely discoveries of major classes of synthetic pesticides likecarbamates, pyrethroids, organophosphates, and organochlorines are moreconcentrations seriously beyond those required for control the target organism,consequently the insect resistance power increased along with hazards effectson humans, other non-targeted animals, atmospheric and water pollution (Guyot,1994).
WHO (The World Health Organization) estimates every year 200,000 peopleare killed globally due to chemical pesticide poisoning (CAPE, 2009). Moreoverthe utilization of synthetic chemicals has been restricted because ofcarcinogenic, teratogenic and revealed high and acute residual toxicity. Theyall imbalance the hormonal secretion and show spermatotoxicity, longdegradation period which caused in toxic residues in nutrition (Feng and Zheng,2007; Pretty, 2009; Dubey et al., 2011; Khater, 2011). Later many chemicalspesticides banned, more than 60 pesticides like, like, Endosulfan, DDT, endrin,Methyl Bromide, Monocrotophos, Diazinon, Sodium Cyanide, Methyl Parathion wereused by Indian formers. Greater and continuous use of chemical pesticides, manypests have developed resistance power to-words chemicals like organophosphates,carbomates, pyrethroids and chlorinated hydrocarbons (Wu et al., 1984;Ramakrishnan et al.
, 1984; Zhou, 1984; Armes et al., 1997;Kranthi et al., 2001, 2002; Shi et al., 2003). About 2.
5 milliontons of conventional pesticides used crops every year can cause worldwidedestruction due to high toxicity and non-biodegradability of pesticides,causing pollution or continued on the crop surfaces distressing ecosystem andpublic well-being. Conventional chemical pesticides, chemical fertilizers, seedand plants growth have been implicated in polluting the soils and watercourses.They have affected ample disruption to the ecosystems and have directed tobiodiversity loss (Van Balen et al.
, 2006). The unsystematic andsevere uses of toxic synthetic and broadspectrum pesticides resultedin the resurgence effectson primary and secondary pest occurrences, increasedresistance power, insecticidal residue, lethal effects and health hazards onhumans and also damagedenvironment and agriculture (Pimental et al.,1992, Royand Mukhopadhyay 2010). And italso has reduced habitat loss ofmicro- and macro flora and fauna of soiland has also entered into the food chain thereby affecting all living beings (Edwardsand Thompson 1973; Tripathi and Sharma 2005; Frampton et al.
, 2006; Bezchlebova etal., 2007). A synthetic pesticides effect ends with adverse effects andharmful impacts on non-targeted animals, environmental pollution and ecologicalimbalance (Zadoks and Waibel, 1999, Rao eta l., 2005). The serve use of synthetic pesticides ledto several problems directed to unexpected at the time of their outline: acuteand chronic poisoning of applicators, farm-workers, and even users; destructionof fish, birds, and other wildlife; distraction of natural biological controland pollination; wide-ranging groundwater contamination, hypotheticallythreatening human and environmental health; and the development of resistanceto pesticides in pest populations (National Research Council 2000). Near about 98% insecticides and about 95%of herbicides were sprayed to target species (pests) including non-targetspecies. Pesticides are meant to regulate destructive pests such as insects,nematodes, weeds, diseases etc.
Though, extreme use of synthetic pesticides leave residues in water,soil and air then again have adverseeffects on the non-target animals such as parasitoids, predators, pollinatorsand wild faunas. This all adversely affected the ecological balance causingpest species, development of resistance and environmental pollution.In thepresent scenario, the world and Indian population is growing rapidly. To feedthis fast rising population, there is a quick need to produce large amount offood product. Meanwhile, there is a huge loss of agricultural crops, and foodgrains due to the damage of insect pests in the field as well as in thestoreroom condition.
Since India hasrich bio-diversity regions, it helps to prepare and use at local levels oncommercial lines (Chari et al, 1991).It demands eco-friendlyalternatives are immediately required (Parmar, 1993). Whereas the adverseeffects of synthetic pesticide effects has provided the incentive for theprogress of bio-pesticides (botanical pesticides) may be one best alternativeto control insect pests and harmful effects of chemical pesticides. TheInorganic chemical insecticides had been used mostly to control A. janata, but the progressively this isbecoming challenging due to development of resistance power in the insects.Consequently, in current years there is increased prominence on developing moreeffective yet sustainable and environmental safer approaches of pest control(Schnepf and Crickmore, 1988).