1. MilkProteins Camel milk carries two fractions ofproteins: casein and protein whey. The total amount of camel milk varies from2.15 to 4.
90 % (Konuspayeva et al., 2009), which is 3.1 % on average. Thecontent of proteins in camel milk is affected by the breed and season. Thebreed Majaheim produces milk with higher protein content in contrast with otherbreeds (Wadah and Hamra). Protein content varies rely on the season, and it islowest (2.
48 %) in August and the highest (2.9 %) in December and January(Haddadin et al., 2008). 2. Casein Casein (CN) is the important camelmilk protein. The share of casein in the milk of one-humped camels is 1.
63 –2.76 %, which represents about 52 – 87 % of all proteins (Khaskheli et al.,2005). The share of casein varies with certain camel breeds, so the breedSafrah possesses the highest share of casein in contrast with the breeds Majaheimand Wadah. Casein fragments in camel milk are ?s1-casein (22 %), ?s2-casein(9.
5 %), ?-casein (65 %) and ?-casein (3.5 %). ?s2-casein contains 11phosphoserine residue which gives casein with a powerful affinity towards k-casein,calcium, magnesium and oligo elements differs from rest of the caseins with its sensitivity to chymosin, lowaffinity to calcium and the presence of carbohydrates within the structures homogenousto human milk because it contains a elevated concentration of ?-CN and suchelevated concentration might have an influence upon its better digestibilityand low frequency of allergies in infants.
Camel milk has a elevatedconcentration of b-casein in contrast with cow milk,while the mass of k- and ?-casein are lower in camelmilk. Caseins are easily digestible in the host’s bowels and are a good sourceof amino acids whose composition is suitable for the development and growth ofthe young. Amino acid composition of camel milk is very much similar to cowmilk.
Amount of essential and non-essentialamino acids are elevated in the cow milk casein in contrast with dairy camelbreeds, except the amount of arginine which is elevated in the milk of Safrahbreeds. Amount of essential amino acids is higher in cow ?-casein in contrastwith ?-casein in dairy camel breeds, with exceptions like isoleucine, lysine,threonine and methionine the concentrations of which are higher in camel milk.The collection of glycine and serine are elevated in the cow ?-casein, whilethe amount of arginin is higher in the milk by Majaheim breed. Concentration of nonessential aminoacids in ?-casein in cow milk is elevated in contrast with camel milk, leavingarginin the concentration of which is elevated in camel milk ?-casein. Cow milk?-casein comprises a higher concentration of essential amino acids in contrastof camel milk, except for lysine whose amount is higher in the camel ?-casein.
Camel milk hydrolysis k-CN takes place on peptideconnection Phe97-Ile98 by cymosine action, while in the cow milk it occurs onPhe105-Met106 (Kappeler et al., 1998). Camel milk k-CNhas an additional proline residue in its sequence (Pro 95). An secondary prolineresidue has an important role in the stability of camel milk k-CN