1. to cover the analytical procedures to estimate

1. Introduction The following paper is about an overview into the designof liquid retaining structures designed to Eurocode.

This topic attempts to coverthe analytical procedures to estimate crack widths when designing liquidretaining structures which will require to have durability, adequate strengthand able to withstand cracking and deflection that will eventually lead to a clearrepresentation of elements influencing the limits of cracking in ‘Eurocode’that is used to design the structures (Forth et al. 2014). Criticalengineering principles, criterions and analysis methods have been used toestablish to design of liquid/water retaining structure. Therefore,traditionally these particular structures are usually deigned to Eurocode BS EN1992-3, 1992-1-1 in correlation with the UK National Annex together with BritishStandard BS 8110, BS 8007 which has now been withdrawn.    When designing liquid retentionstructures long term structural hazards effect, therefore design precautionsshould be made accordingly.

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For example, cracking of these elements is an issueand is caused due to loading, temperature and shrinkage effects. For thisreason, careful thought to ultimate strength together with serviceability ofcracking to control the cracking is to be taken into account during the designprocess (Mosley, B. et al. 2012: 381 – 382). Which proves that design of liquidretaining structures have constantly been a matter to engineers as inevitableshort and long term cracking has a significant effect in the structural design(Nawy 2008: 4–34). The aim of thisproject is to a nalyse fundamental theories for controlling cracking designedaccording to latest methods used in Eurocode.

The criteria chosento investigate is crack width controlling with respect to liquid retainingconcrete structures. Hence the primary objective is to identifying trends inthe method with an intention to comprehend the design procedure in an improvedmanner allowing engineers to design efficiently and economically.    Chapter 022. Methodology2.1 Design approach Initially the structural designbegins selection of member sizes and reinforcement. Next step is carrying outthe analysis of the structural member itself by calculating its strength andcrack widths due to load. Likewise, the limit stress method is used tocalculate the desired thickness which is similar to carrying out crack widthcalculations which also helps is controlling the thickness (Forth et al.

2014:8).  The main reason for the choice ofcracking to be investigated in this research was to streamline the knowledgearound the analysis of crack width produced to flexure, tension and bendingwhich is being implemented in the Eurocode. The use of Eurocode 2 Part 3 – Designof Liquid retaining and containment structures will essentially be a keyprinciple that represents the approach to investigating the adopted limit statedesign, ultimate limit state for the control of cracking and analytical methodsto estimate crack widths (P, Martin, and Forth 2014b: 4). 2.

2 IdentifiedResourcesIn order to identify major issues inthe design of reinforced liquid retaining structures with respect to cracking,the following British Standards and Eurocodes were reviewed. Controlledcracking theorems used by each code together with its assumptions wereinvestigated. The codes used to investigate crack width control are; ·       BS EN 1992-3: Eurocode 2: Design ofConcrete Structures – Part 3: Liquid Retaining and Containment Structures BSI2006·       BS EN 1992-1-1: Eurocode 2: Design ofconcrete structures – Part 1: General requirements BSI 2004·       the structure of the study will bebased upon a logical sequential engineering approach to meeting its aims andobjectives.The most critical tasks consist ofproviding detailed analysis in reviewing previously calculated/designed liquidretaining structures designed to Eurocode for the purpose of providinganalytical and valid justifications to the respective processes.

A methodicalevaluation will be carried through the aid of matrix tables, pros & cons,tables, charts and figures. Predominantly the research consists of carrying outin-depth analysis to the design of liquid/water retaining structures to illustratethe compliance with basic strength and serviceability requirement stated inEurocode.

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