1. causes (Bressert, 2017). First of all, gene

1.

IntroductionPeople with avoidant personality disorder (APD) display apattern of behaviour which begins early during their teenage years, with somecharacteristics such as extreme anxiety, shyness, feelings of insufficiency andfear of being rejected. (Drago, Marogna & Sogaard, 2016). Nowadays, about1–2% of the world population suffer from APD (Sanislow, Bartolini & Zoloth,2012). Those people tend to avoid social contact because they are afraid ofcriticisms and judgements from others. Moreover, the fear of rejection makesthem want to be lonely rather than have relationships, except with some peoplewho are close to them, in the belief that they will not be rejected (Gluck,2016). All of this has a negative impact on patients’ life and makes itdifficult not only for them to interact with society but also for psychologistsand psychiatrists to deal with this serious problem. This paper, with the aimof raising people knowledge about APD, is conducted to provide informationabout the symtoms, causes and treatments of APD.

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2. Discussion offindings2.1.

Backgroundinformation about APD 2.2. Symtoms of APDGluck (2014) stated that APD initial signs appear duringearly years, but often seem to be normal until late adolescence. Nearly allchildren express some anxiety and shyness when interact with new people orsituations; these behaviours do not mean that they will develop APD, unlessthey continue during adulthood and become a big trouble.As reported by Goldberg (cited in Webmb, n.d.

), individualwho has APD has a tendency to avoid speaking up in social situations for fearof getting embarrassed due to saying something wrong. According to Bressert (2017), people who experience APD avoidwork-related activites that require social interaction due to their fear ofbeing criticized or neglected.Those people are reluctant to be related to others unlesssurely being liked.

  2.3. Causes of APDResearcher and scientists do not know exactly what are thereasons of avoidant personality disorder, althought it is theorized by a numberof experts that there are genetic, social and psychological factors contributeto the this mental problem’s causes (Bressert, 2017).

First of all, gene ispossibly a reason for this illness. A study conducted in Norway on teenagersindicated that the inheritability of APD is between 27% and 35%. Moreover,approximately 83% of these genes also have some connections with otherpersonality disorders (Lucida Treatment, 2014). Secondly, this disorder appearsmay be due to the impact of social environment on people. Lucida Treatment(2014) states that APD individuals do not learn appropriate coping skills todeal with social challenges from their childhood and adolescence. Consequently,they become shy and afraid of facing new situation and have a possibility ofhaving APD.As reported by Gluck (2016), many APD patients have sorrowfulexperiences when they were a child, which involve in ruthless criticism andneglect from their parents.

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