1. Introduction Theissue of use of the mother tongue in EFL classroom has witnessed debate on whetherit should be used or isolated.
In fact it has been accepted as a taboo by teachers who supports the idea of ”English – only ” for many years. Kahraman (2009 ) says that in spite of thenew inclinations about language teaching and learning over the course oftwentieth century, incorrect presumptions survived deep-rooted in terms of teachingEnglish in EFL classrooms with the idea of ” English-Only” and the help of native speaker who is accepted asa optimal teacher of English.From this point of view, some second or forignlanguage teachers are accepted as the supporters of the Monolingual Approachand Bilingual Approach.
If a teacher prefer using target language without anymother languages’ word ,this is called Monolingual Approach and it only permitsusing target language with four skills. On the contrary, ?f a teacher has doubtsof using mother tongue or use it very judiciously and logically , thsi iscalled ” Bilingual Approach”. There are monolingual learners who areexperiencing learning a new language for the first time, and there arebilingual learners who have experienced learning a new language once before.Teachers should be armed with both the knowledge and skill to be able to managesuch heterogenic classrooms. Bilingual learners usually come from differentcultural and ethnic backgrounds as compared to monolingual learners and thus mayneed different teaching methods, different tasks, different class activitiesand even different assignments. Oxford (1990)believes that teachers should assess their students’ strategy use. She addsthat strategy assessment can lead to greater understanding of learningstrategies employed by language learners and better management of teachingactivities.
In this vein,Dujmoviç (2007) asserts that to provide a language learning ,learners should be exposed to the target language with thehelp of mother language in terms of getting a succesful production.Kreshen (1982)states that necessity of the use of mother tongue is very cruial for prosperouslanguage acquisition to get a comprehensible input in the ways of beginners. Turnbull ( 2001) asserts that in foreign orsecon language classrooms, learners’ mother tongue and target language sholudbe used synchronically to provide language acquisition by parsimoniously interms of time management. Willis (1996) takes a consideration to the learners’ managingcommunicative function to pronounce the words. She argues that to see more productionsof the target language , a permission about using of mother tongue should begiven the learners to provide acquisition of the second or foreign language.On the otherhand , Hitotuzi ( 2006) advises that use of mother tongue should be takenconsideration , judicious and limited usage of mother tongue should be allowedin terms of production of the target language. Auerbach (1993 ) , Cook (2001 )and other researchers state that common and undifferentiated use of mothertongue should not be given permissionand limited and logical use of mother language is advised in foreign / secondlanguage classrooms.
2. Literature ReviewA lot of studies have been conducted to investigate the attributions and perceptions towards L1use in the classroom. Since the debate about L1 use in foreign language classeshas gained great attention, research studies regarding L1 use in second andforeign language classes are abound in literature.
In his firstresearch , Prodromou (2002 ) studied with 300 Greek learners to analyse the attributionsof the students with different proficiency levels. The results demonsrated thatthe students of the advanced levels reacted to use of mother tongue but anotherstudents had a positive attitude towards use of mother tongue. Duimovic ( 2007) investigated the perceptions of his students and his findings was based onthe use of mother tongue in target language contexts with a positive attitude.Schweers (1999) made a research to explore teachers’and learners’ perspectives towards use of L1 in target language classes.
He foundout that 88,7 % of the students ,who were the speakers of Spanish , preferedusing mother tongue with the idea of using mother tongue facilitating learningtarget language.Juarez and Oxbrow (2008 ) investigated the role ofmother tongue use and paid great attention to the translation activities in theclassrooms’ target language context.Theu believed that translation activitieshelped learners to facilitate target language learning.Gabrielotos ( 2001) conducted a study by observingteachers to see the students’ willingness to communicate with the targetlanguage.Most of the students asked questions to the teacher with mother tongue, traslated all the words in turkish contexts and they were in the condition ofunwillingness.Sal? (2014) tried to find out teachers’ point of viewon the use of L1. The findings explored that academic functions of L1 useoutnumbered the other major functions of L1. One of the most frequently expressedreasons of L1 use was providing explanations.
In the same vein, Paker?aç (2015) found thaton the purpose of clarifying difficult concepts, aims of the rapport-buildingand making the word or toppic explicit ,mother tongue was used largely by theinstructors. Yata?anbaba and Y?ld?r?m (2015) investigated Turkish languageteachers? L1 use and found that all the teachers used L1 to diversifying contentsin their classrooms. The results demonsrated that use of the mother languagewas accepted as a useful tool to provide language acquisiton.Neverthelessteachers made a mention of not to exchange L1 for L2 .
In hisstudy, Sar?çoban (2010) investigatedboth the attitudes of university students towards using L1 and why, when, howmuch the target language should be used.His results indicated that bulky of thestudents had optimistic attributions through using Turkish in foreign languageclassrooms.