1. promoters failed to set up and promote

1.    IntroductionColdplay is a British rock band formed in 1996 by the lead singer Chris Martin, who is also the keyboardist and by Jonny Buckland, who is the lead guitarist. Before they called themselves Coldplay, they had two other names, of which the first one was Pectoralz and the second one Starfish. Parlophone was the first major label they signed, with their first release called ‘The Blue Room’. Coldplay now is a worldwide known group, who won many different awards throughout their career. They have different music styles coming together as one, but generally, they focus on alternative rock, pop rock, post-Britpop, and pop. Their success is based on the way Coldplay writes their songs, as they are most of the time related to love, heartbreak and insecurities of the group, which makes them so special and unique. Trying to reach out to them to find out more about them, is very hard, as they love their privacy and there was no way, that one of their managers or agents would reply to emails, asking for an interview, in order to find out more about the phenome Coldplay. All the knowledge is based on book, reports, online sources and personal knowledge.2. ManagementColdplay started as an individual group in 1996. They continually were gigging around and got more famous throughout the years. In 1998 they had to involve management into their career after one of their promoters failed to set up and promote properly an event in Camden. Chris Martin complained about what happened to them to Phil Harvey, who suggested to put on their own event at Dingwalls in Camden, which was the first time Phil Harvey got involved as a manager of the group, with the goal to sell more record copies and find investors to finance future productions of Coldplay. Phil Harvey was originally the creative director of the band before he took the place of a manager. Phil Harvey eventually left the group in 2001, but is until today, still in contact with them.3. FanbaseColdplay did not build up their fan base through online platforms at the beginnings, as there was no such thing in 1996, so the only thing to reach out to fans was to sell their records on the streets and by gigging as much as possible. Their secret is, that they changed a lot of times their music style which made it very interesting for fans, as they kept up their interest. After the album ‘X’, Coldplay had a bit of a breakdown in their fan bases, and so decided to write a single called ‘Violet Hill’ which had the flavor of the Beatles era, and gave their records and vinyl’s away for free. They also offered free online downloading and free concerts in London, New York, and Barcelona. They justified all of this because they said that more than ever they would need to give people a reason to be excited about music and because they wanted to make something personal, which was not connected in any way to big corporations or record companies. By using online platforms, merchandising, including opinions and experiences, Coldplay keeps up with their audience and try to reach out to new fans daily.4. Record LabelsColdplay signed their first contract in 1998, with a record label called ‘Fierce Panda’ who was founded by Simon Williams. He discovered them at a live show in a Londoner club and was so impressed by them that he immediately signed them to his label. One year after Coldplay signed a contract with the record label ‘Parlophone’, on which they released their single ‘The Blue Room’. Since then they are signed with them. Image 1 shows an actual picture of the moment Coldplay signed to their record label.5. Mainstream successThanks to their changing music styles Coldplay has been able to reach most of their mainstream success in their ongoing career. The fact that they started as an indie group and changed their style throughout the years made them so successful. A lot of artists base their music on one specific style and keep it that way. Coldplay released rock singles, pop singles, and even romantic ballads. Another factor for their mainstream success is that a lot of their music includes topics like love, heartbreaks, and insecurities of the band, but more specifically of Chris Martin. By doing that they get closer to their fans and can connect better with them as they are common themes. The last big factor is that Coldplay re-leased music related to poverty, fair trade, and improvement of the lives of people around the world, which makes it more appealing to listeners. By doing this thing the group wants to make a difference in music and helps them to keep up with being mainstream artists.6. New media and Marketinga.    New MediaNew media has become a huge part of every artist’s career, as it offers new and faster way to promote their music and offers a faster way to reach out to new fans with less struggle. The communication between Coldplay and fans is very accurate and seems also more personal and easier, plus it is a big plus for sale easier tickets, merchandising products and recordings.b.    MarketingInitially, Coldplay marketed their acts and music by going around gigging in different places and by realizing albums and being featured on festivals and bigger concerts. They changed their marketing by selling merchandise, vinyl’s and by being very active on online platforms. A new way of marketing for them is to appear on fair trade shows and sponsoring campaigns such as the Team BRIT.7. BusinessColdplay has specific factors which influence their successful business throughout this years. Coldplay like to have a low profile by giving as few interviews as possible, with the justification to keep their public image perfectly controlled. The equality of every band member is very important for them, as they are all involved in writing melodies and evaluating new songs. More importantly, the group has their own rules, which are that an album can’t be longer than 42 minutes or 9 tracks and that the imagery must be colorful and different from everybody else, which makes them unique. An important component is that Chris Martin writes all the lyrics for the songs, which makes them so successful because they are personal and always connected to the group’s history. And one last important factor is that Coldplay is very flexible in their work, means that they start with an idea, but respect if their idea turns out to be completely different. The latest business change they made was to change their producer, in order to be more successful internationally. Their new producer is Stargate, who is very famous and already worked with stars like Rihanna and Beyoncé.8. Royalties, advance amounts, and tour grossesAs mentioned before, Coldplay keeps a low profile on everything which includes royalties, contracts, advance amounts, and tour grosses. Plus it is nearly impossible to get an interview with one of the agents or managers, as they won’t reply to emails at all. The only thing that can be explained is a general aspect of artists. a.    RoyaltiesIn general, a typical royalty rate of an artist or band is 20 % to 25 %. If artists want to get a higher royalty rate they usually negotiate a 360 deal, where they get a big advance and then split the profits from record sales in exchange. 360 deals include every kind of income, such as streaming, touring and merchandising.b.    Advance amountsTypically it depends on which record label artists are signed on. The bigger the record label is the more money they have to spend. Indie labels will consider how much they are able to pay an artist and still have money to invest in the promotion of the release. Major labels exactly plan how much they are going to invest in promotion and how many copies they think they will sell, in order to recoup the advance and make extra money on top. Coldplay is part of a Major Label, which means that the concept of advance amounts is probably that one.c.    Tour grossesColdplay’s ‘A Head Full of Dreams’ is the third highest grossing world tour ever made, with an actual gross of $ 523,033,675 in 2016/17 with a total of 114 shows and 5,389,536 attendees.9. ConclusionColdplay started as a small indie group and got to appoint, that they are one of the most famous artists worldwide. The way of achieving their success, was a lot of passion for their music, a lot of hard work and especially flexibility, change of styles and connection to their fans. It is a very low profile group, which means that it is quite hard find specific things about them, as even in interview they are more general than specific on certain areas, as for contracts, royalties, tour grosses or other statistics. What is clearly to see that most of their success is based in the United Kingdom and in the United States of America. Coldplay is so unique because all the songs are written by their lead singer Chris Martin, and every melody and changes are made together with the other band members. The innovations Coldplay used for their latest albums (music video with monkeys) shows that they are successful and they think outside the box, trying to find continuously something new and filling gaps in the music industry.

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