.1 and animals. Moreover, it is also widely considered

.1 Introduction

    
Pollution can be defined as any undesirable change in the physical,
chemical or biological characteristics of the natural environment. It is the
result of harmful substances or energy released through human activities. Pollution occurs in different forms; air, water, soil,
radioactive, noise, thermal and light. Pollution is often classed as point source or nonpoint source pollution. For the point sources, it is easy to identify, control and
monitor, whereas for the non-point sources, it is hard to control. In 2015,
pollution killed 9 million people in the world.

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     Carbon dioxide,
which is a greenhouse gas, is the main pollutant that is warming Earth. Carbon
dioxide can simply by respiration of human and animals. Moreover, it is also widely
considered to be a pollutant when associated with cars, planes, power plants,
and other human activities that involve the burning of fossil fuels such as
gasoline and natural gas. In the past 150 years, such activities have pumped
enough carbon dioxide into the atmosphere to raise its levels higher than they
have been for hundreds of thousands of years.

     Also, there are some other pollutants such as
carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, lead and fine particulate
which lead to pollution too. Most of these gases are released by the factories
or through the combustion of fossil fuels. These gases are poisonous and can
cause negative impact on human heath, climate, agriculture or buildings.

     Furthermore, air pollution has always
accompanied civilizations. Pollution started from prehistoric times when man
created the first fires. According to a 1983 article in the journal Science, “soot” found on ceilings of prehistoric caves provides
ample evidence of the high levels of pollution that was associated with inadequate
ventilation of open fires. Metal forging appears to be a
key turning point in the creation of significant air pollution levels outside
the home. Core samples of glaciers in Greenland indicate increases in pollution
associated with Greek, Roman and Chinese metal production, but at that time the
pollution was comparatively small and could be handled by nature

5.2
Types and causes of pollution

Air pollution is the most prominent
and dangerous form of pollution. This pollution looks like soot,
containing millions of tiny particles, floating in the air. Burning of fossil fuels is
the main source of air pollution. Fossil fuels are burnt using coal, natural
gas and petroleum. This is usually done in domestic and industrial boilers and
in the internal engines of vehicles. The element in the fuels are oxidised when
fossil fuels are burnt resulting in the formation of air pollutants. These
include carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen and fine
particulate matter. Smoke from chimneys, factories, vehicles or burning of wood
basically occurs due to coal burning, this releases sulphur dioxide into the
air making it toxic. (Refer appendice-19)

Also, air pollution is
caused by human activities such as open burning and the burning of dried paddy
stalks. This causes the released of poisonous substances such as carbon dioxide
and fine particulate matter which cause the pollution of air. In
addition, air pollution can be caused by agricultural
activities. Ammonia is a
very common by product from agriculture related activities. It is one of the
most hazardous gases in the atmosphere. Then, the use of insecticides,
pesticides and fertilizers in agricultural will also emit harmful chemicals
into the air which cause air pollution.

    
Next, water pollution is the contamination of water bodies. Water pollution usually occurs when pollutants are directly or indirectly discharged into water bodies
without adequate treatment to remove harmful compounds. Firstly, it is caused by
the spilling of large amount of oil into the seas and does not dissolve in
water (Refer appendice-20).
Moreover, if the garbage or rubbish in the form of plastic, paper, aluminium,
rubber of food is thrown into river, sea or lakes by each household, it will lead
to water pollution.

    
Noise pollution is the propagation of noise with harmful impact on
the activity of human or animal life. Noise pollution is caused when noise
which is an unpleasant sound affects our ears and leads to psychological
problems like stress, hypertension, hearing impairment. Numerous heavy
industrial vehicles, heavy machinery and above average noise level have all
caused tremendous noise pollution in our environments. Road traffic, domestic
noises and even traffic emanating from rail and air all have given rise to
increasing noise levels.

 

5.3
Effect of various pollutions

      Pollutions
cause harmful effect on human health. For air pollution, they create several
heart and respiratory conditions along with cancer, among other threats to the
body. This includes asthma and lung cancer which can lead to death if the
condition is worst. Air pollution can cause many diseases such as chest pain,
congestion, throat inflammation, cardiovascular disease and respiratory
disease. Several millions are known to have died due to direct
or indirect effects of air pollution.

     For example,
according to the India’s news, air pollution is the
fifth largest killer in India taking 6.2 lakh lives per year and Delhi is among
one of the five most critically polluted regions in the country. It said air pollution had also turned out the fifth
leading cause of death in the country, after high blood pressure, indoor air
pollution, tobacco smoking and poor nutrition. There are 6.20 lakh premature deaths occur in India from air pollution-related
diseases. (Refer
appendice-21)

     On the other hand,
water pollution occurs due to contamination of water. Thus, it may cause skin
related problems including skin irritations and rashes. Human may suffer this
problems during the intake of polluted water which contain contaminated or
harmful chemical substances. Similarly, noise pollution leads to hearing loss,
stress, sleep disturbance, tired and exhaustion, annoyance
and physiological losses.

    
Besides that, pollutions will cause environment degradation. Environment is the first casualty for increase in pollution
weather in air or water. The process of photosynthesis by plants will be
inhibit with the increasing amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. This is
because carbon dioxide leads to smog which can restrict sunlight from reaching
the Earth. Gases such as sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide can contribute to acid
rain whereas water pollution in terms of oil spill may
lead to death of several wildlife species. This is because the toxic pollutants
deposit over the surface of the water and cause the depletion of oxygen in
water.

     In addition, pollution can cause global warming. The gas that
mainly contribute to global warming is carbon dioxide. In recent years, new
industries are being set up, new vehicles come on roads and trees are cut to
make way for new homes. These are directly or indirectly lead to increase in
carbon dioxide in the environment. This results in melting of polar ice caps
which increases the sea level and pose danger for the people living near
coastal areas.

5.4
Solutions for Pollutions

     In this industrial age, pollution
cannot be eliminated completely, but steps can be taken to reduce it. For air
pollution, the gases released during the burnt of the fossil fuels is the main
contributor for it. Therefore, we can start from reducing the burning of fossil
fuel and coal. We can use renewable or green energy sources such as solar
energy, hydro-power, geothermal energy and wind energy rather than relying on
fossil fuels or coal energy.

     Other than that, we can use energy devices
and always be mindful of energy consumption. We must always make sure the TV,
lights, fans, and any other electronic appliances is turn off when not in use
in order to reduce the consumption of unnecessary energy. This is because large
amount of fossil fuels is burnt to produce electricity. Then, we can try to use
CFL lights which consume less electricity (Refer
appendice-22). CFL lights not only consume less electricity, it is also
live longer, the electricity bills for it is low and it can reduce pollution by
consuming less energy.

     Besides that, pollution can be reduced by
using individual level prevention methods. Many ways can be used by the
individual to help to reduce air pollution. Firstly, individuals who are aware
of the causes and effects of pollution can spread the awareness for their
family, friends, colleagues and encourage them to use public transportation
when heading to their destinations. This is to reduced the released of
greenhouse gasses from vehicles. Secondly, we can use reuse, reduce and recycle
method. Reusing some substances such as papers, tissue papers, plastic bags or
bottles can reduce the loads of pollution.

     In addition, water pollution can me
overcome through industrial waste water treatment. Loads of waste water containing high concentrations of
conventional water pollutants and other contaminants such as ammonia are
normally generated by industries. Thus, it required well-designed treatment and
water cooling systems to reduce the water pollution caused by industries. Pre-treatment
facilities and adoption of quality waste treatment protocols can be install for
the use to eliminate the toxic contaminants.

     Moreover, anti-pollution
laws and regulations are one of the effective way to curtail water pollution.
This is because laws play an excellent role to ensure rate of water pollution
levels are kept to the minimum. Environmental protection policies such as the
Clean Water Acts work to ensure that anti-pollution laws are effective and
apply to all significant waters including ground water. Antipollution laws can
restrict for top water pollution problems such as sewage and industrial waste
treatments and garbage management.

     Lastly,
noise pollutions are sometimes cannot be overcome. For example, the noises that
make by plane, or train cannot be overcome but it can be prevented by us. We
can prevent hearing these noise by wearing ear plugs, which can bring down loud noises to manageable level. Also,
we can try to stay away from noisy areas. We must always follow the limit of
noise level. The loudness of speaker, radio or TV should be control.

.1 Introduction

    
Pollution can be defined as any undesirable change in the physical,
chemical or biological characteristics of the natural environment. It is the
result of harmful substances or energy released through human activities. Pollution occurs in different forms; air, water, soil,
radioactive, noise, thermal and light. Pollution is often classed as point source or nonpoint source pollution. For the point sources, it is easy to identify, control and
monitor, whereas for the non-point sources, it is hard to control. In 2015,
pollution killed 9 million people in the world.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

     Carbon dioxide,
which is a greenhouse gas, is the main pollutant that is warming Earth. Carbon
dioxide can simply by respiration of human and animals. Moreover, it is also widely
considered to be a pollutant when associated with cars, planes, power plants,
and other human activities that involve the burning of fossil fuels such as
gasoline and natural gas. In the past 150 years, such activities have pumped
enough carbon dioxide into the atmosphere to raise its levels higher than they
have been for hundreds of thousands of years.

     Also, there are some other pollutants such as
carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, lead and fine particulate
which lead to pollution too. Most of these gases are released by the factories
or through the combustion of fossil fuels. These gases are poisonous and can
cause negative impact on human heath, climate, agriculture or buildings.

     Furthermore, air pollution has always
accompanied civilizations. Pollution started from prehistoric times when man
created the first fires. According to a 1983 article in the journal Science, “soot” found on ceilings of prehistoric caves provides
ample evidence of the high levels of pollution that was associated with inadequate
ventilation of open fires. Metal forging appears to be a
key turning point in the creation of significant air pollution levels outside
the home. Core samples of glaciers in Greenland indicate increases in pollution
associated with Greek, Roman and Chinese metal production, but at that time the
pollution was comparatively small and could be handled by nature

5.2
Types and causes of pollution

Air pollution is the most prominent
and dangerous form of pollution. This pollution looks like soot,
containing millions of tiny particles, floating in the air. Burning of fossil fuels is
the main source of air pollution. Fossil fuels are burnt using coal, natural
gas and petroleum. This is usually done in domestic and industrial boilers and
in the internal engines of vehicles. The element in the fuels are oxidised when
fossil fuels are burnt resulting in the formation of air pollutants. These
include carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen and fine
particulate matter. Smoke from chimneys, factories, vehicles or burning of wood
basically occurs due to coal burning, this releases sulphur dioxide into the
air making it toxic. (Refer appendice-19)

Also, air pollution is
caused by human activities such as open burning and the burning of dried paddy
stalks. This causes the released of poisonous substances such as carbon dioxide
and fine particulate matter which cause the pollution of air. In
addition, air pollution can be caused by agricultural
activities. Ammonia is a
very common by product from agriculture related activities. It is one of the
most hazardous gases in the atmosphere. Then, the use of insecticides,
pesticides and fertilizers in agricultural will also emit harmful chemicals
into the air which cause air pollution.

    
Next, water pollution is the contamination of water bodies. Water pollution usually occurs when pollutants are directly or indirectly discharged into water bodies
without adequate treatment to remove harmful compounds. Firstly, it is caused by
the spilling of large amount of oil into the seas and does not dissolve in
water (Refer appendice-20).
Moreover, if the garbage or rubbish in the form of plastic, paper, aluminium,
rubber of food is thrown into river, sea or lakes by each household, it will lead
to water pollution.

    
Noise pollution is the propagation of noise with harmful impact on
the activity of human or animal life. Noise pollution is caused when noise
which is an unpleasant sound affects our ears and leads to psychological
problems like stress, hypertension, hearing impairment. Numerous heavy
industrial vehicles, heavy machinery and above average noise level have all
caused tremendous noise pollution in our environments. Road traffic, domestic
noises and even traffic emanating from rail and air all have given rise to
increasing noise levels.

 

5.3
Effect of various pollutions

      Pollutions
cause harmful effect on human health. For air pollution, they create several
heart and respiratory conditions along with cancer, among other threats to the
body. This includes asthma and lung cancer which can lead to death if the
condition is worst. Air pollution can cause many diseases such as chest pain,
congestion, throat inflammation, cardiovascular disease and respiratory
disease. Several millions are known to have died due to direct
or indirect effects of air pollution.

     For example,
according to the India’s news, air pollution is the
fifth largest killer in India taking 6.2 lakh lives per year and Delhi is among
one of the five most critically polluted regions in the country. It said air pollution had also turned out the fifth
leading cause of death in the country, after high blood pressure, indoor air
pollution, tobacco smoking and poor nutrition. There are 6.20 lakh premature deaths occur in India from air pollution-related
diseases. (Refer
appendice-21)

     On the other hand,
water pollution occurs due to contamination of water. Thus, it may cause skin
related problems including skin irritations and rashes. Human may suffer this
problems during the intake of polluted water which contain contaminated or
harmful chemical substances. Similarly, noise pollution leads to hearing loss,
stress, sleep disturbance, tired and exhaustion, annoyance
and physiological losses.

    
Besides that, pollutions will cause environment degradation. Environment is the first casualty for increase in pollution
weather in air or water. The process of photosynthesis by plants will be
inhibit with the increasing amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. This is
because carbon dioxide leads to smog which can restrict sunlight from reaching
the Earth. Gases such as sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide can contribute to acid
rain whereas water pollution in terms of oil spill may
lead to death of several wildlife species. This is because the toxic pollutants
deposit over the surface of the water and cause the depletion of oxygen in
water.

     In addition, pollution can cause global warming. The gas that
mainly contribute to global warming is carbon dioxide. In recent years, new
industries are being set up, new vehicles come on roads and trees are cut to
make way for new homes. These are directly or indirectly lead to increase in
carbon dioxide in the environment. This results in melting of polar ice caps
which increases the sea level and pose danger for the people living near
coastal areas.

5.4
Solutions for Pollutions

     In this industrial age, pollution
cannot be eliminated completely, but steps can be taken to reduce it. For air
pollution, the gases released during the burnt of the fossil fuels is the main
contributor for it. Therefore, we can start from reducing the burning of fossil
fuel and coal. We can use renewable or green energy sources such as solar
energy, hydro-power, geothermal energy and wind energy rather than relying on
fossil fuels or coal energy.

     Other than that, we can use energy devices
and always be mindful of energy consumption. We must always make sure the TV,
lights, fans, and any other electronic appliances is turn off when not in use
in order to reduce the consumption of unnecessary energy. This is because large
amount of fossil fuels is burnt to produce electricity. Then, we can try to use
CFL lights which consume less electricity (Refer
appendice-22). CFL lights not only consume less electricity, it is also
live longer, the electricity bills for it is low and it can reduce pollution by
consuming less energy.

     Besides that, pollution can be reduced by
using individual level prevention methods. Many ways can be used by the
individual to help to reduce air pollution. Firstly, individuals who are aware
of the causes and effects of pollution can spread the awareness for their
family, friends, colleagues and encourage them to use public transportation
when heading to their destinations. This is to reduced the released of
greenhouse gasses from vehicles. Secondly, we can use reuse, reduce and recycle
method. Reusing some substances such as papers, tissue papers, plastic bags or
bottles can reduce the loads of pollution.

     In addition, water pollution can me
overcome through industrial waste water treatment. Loads of waste water containing high concentrations of
conventional water pollutants and other contaminants such as ammonia are
normally generated by industries. Thus, it required well-designed treatment and
water cooling systems to reduce the water pollution caused by industries. Pre-treatment
facilities and adoption of quality waste treatment protocols can be install for
the use to eliminate the toxic contaminants.

     Moreover, anti-pollution
laws and regulations are one of the effective way to curtail water pollution.
This is because laws play an excellent role to ensure rate of water pollution
levels are kept to the minimum. Environmental protection policies such as the
Clean Water Acts work to ensure that anti-pollution laws are effective and
apply to all significant waters including ground water. Antipollution laws can
restrict for top water pollution problems such as sewage and industrial waste
treatments and garbage management.

     Lastly,
noise pollutions are sometimes cannot be overcome. For example, the noises that
make by plane, or train cannot be overcome but it can be prevented by us. We
can prevent hearing these noise by wearing ear plugs, which can bring down loud noises to manageable level. Also,
we can try to stay away from noisy areas. We must always follow the limit of
noise level. The loudness of speaker, radio or TV should be control.

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