1.0. Introduction
This chapter of the concept paper presents the background of the study, problem statement, purpose of the study, objectives of the study, research questions, scope of the study, significance of the study and the conceptual framework
1.1. Background to the study
Education is a gadget used to effect countrywide progress. Educational aims stand fixed out in the National Plan on Education in relations of their application to the requirements of the individual and society. The National Strategy is established with aims and objectives, to facilitate educational growth in the country. These goals and intents invite the school head to provide vital roles include enhancing real administrative skills and styles to manage colleges, improve job performance among teachers so students’ academic performance is boosted (Fika, I. Ibi, M. and Aji, B., 2015).
It is not astonishing that there is massive demand for operative administration of secondary schools. A good number of school heads haven’t considered the different administrative techniques which determine students’ academic performance in the country. Hence, some of them seem to find it tremendously problematic to successfully lead their schools (Akinnibagbe , 2002).
With the fast changing world, it is impossible for people of preferred managerial technique or type to embrace all knowledge, awareness or power to realise success (Muthondu G.W., 2007). These longstanding forms of management provide power and are a heading to one or few individuals involved in administrative positions. Leadership being gender requires that prospective leaders be trained to adapt to the fluctuating society and make an effort to teach and model different management techniques which will most effectually lead various institutions to achieve set goals.
Students’ performance in examinations is because of different factors; which include provision of physical facilities, classroom size, effective school discipline policies, administrative support and effective leadership. As several studies in Botswana, Nigeria, and Papua New Guinea concur to this (Muli, M.M , 2005). Good administration brings about necessary guidance in the school, clarity of direction and rewards to ensure effective performance of students.
1.2. Problem statement
Administration at work in educational institutions is a dynamic process where an individual is not only accountable for the group’s errands, but also actively seeks the cooperation and assurance of all the group members in achieving group goals in a particular perspective (Aji, B.M, 2014). Administration ensures that students perform to the maximum, since it ensures that tasks are accomplished and the responsible parties assigned for greater strengthening of the institution with emphasis put on recognition, service provision and motivation (Balunywa, W.S. , 2000). However, of all the above contributions of school administration towards academic performance, performance tends to be alarming and wanting in schools as a result of managerial techniques used which influences the organisational culture. Such managerial techniques are made of a set of attitudes, traits, and skills in the principals formed based on four factors: values, trusting employees, leadership orientation, and a sense of security shaped in important situations
1.3. Purpose of the study
The purpose of the study is to examine the effect of school administration on students’ academic performance in Isingiro District.
1.4. Objective of the study
i. To establish the different factors that affect students’ academic performance.
ii. To investigate the contribution of school administrators towards students’ academic performance
iii. To determine the possible measures to the challenges faced by students in Isingiro District.
1.5. Research questions
i. What are the different factors that affect students’ academic performance?
ii. What is the contribution of school administrators towards students’ academic performance?
iii. What are the possible measures to the challenges faced by students in Isingiro District?
1.6. Scope of the study
The study will focus on effect of school administrators on students’ academic performance The study is limited to school administrators as the independent variable and students’ academic performance as the dependent variable. The study will be carried out in Isingiro District. This so because of the limited finances and with government aided schools in place within the district whose academic performance tends to fluctuate each and every year.
1.7. Significance of the study
The results of this study will be valuable to researchers and scholars, as it would form a basis for further research. Scholars will use this study as a basis for discussions on school administration and students’ academic performance as it will provide the scholars with empirical studies that they will use in their studies. The study will also add to the body of knowledge in the education discipline by bridging the existing gap. This study will make several contributions to both knowledge building and practice improvement with several policies recommendation put forward
1.8. Conceptual framework
Independent Variable Dependent Variable

Mediating/intervening variable

Source: Researcher 2018
2.0. Literature review
Principalship is a critical management skill involving the ability to encourage group of people towards common goal. Leadership focuses on the development of followers and their needs. Managers exercising transformational administrative style focusing on the development of value system of employees, their motivational level and moralities with the development of their skills, (Sashkin, M. ;Sashkin, M. , 2003). Different administrative styles of a school principal which include initiative, consideration and participatory structure of management (Omolayo B., 2009)
Initiative structure of administration is the extent to which a principal defines managers and group member roles, initiates actions, organizes group activities and defines how task are to be accomplished by the group. A leader in this structure defines his goals and facilitates group movement toward them. This administrative style decides everything and tries to manipulate the followers into approving his ideas on how the school should function. A leader in this group does not give trust to any member of the group.
Lee (1995) reported that, the Initiative structure of management leadership style results in the group members reacting aggressively and apathetically in the work environment. This often results in unending industrial disputes in an organization hence affecting the overall achievement of the organizational goals and objectives. Mwalala, (2008) observed that Initiative structure and harsh climate leads to poor performance of students. Initiative structure of management, also known as autocratic leaders, provide clear expectations for what needs to be done, when it should be done, and how it should be done. There is also a clear division between the leader and the followers.
In their study, Lewin and Caillords (2001) found that participative administrator, also known as democratic leadership, is generally the most effective administrative style. Participatory structure leadership not only offers guidance to group members, but they are allowed to participate in the group and allow input from other group members. Hence, children in this group were less productive than the members of the Initiative structure group, but their contributions were of a much higher quality. Participative administrator encourages group members to participate, but retain the final say over the decision-making process. Group members feel engaged in the process and are more motivated and creative who in turn improve their performance as well as the performance of the organization.
3.0. Methodology
The researcher will adopt a descriptive research survey for this study it is suitable for the study as it gives the researcher the opportunity of obtaining respondents’ opinion from the entire population sampled. The total population of the study is made up of 5 Secondary Schools in Isingiro district during the 2015/2017 academic session. The population is chosen for investigation due to the researcher’s interest. Simple Random Sampling method will be used. The Schools in the Zone are grouped according the three divisions in the district. Simple Random Sampling method will be used to select the Schools under study. The sample size will comprise of 60 teachers from the secondary schools being studied which will constitute the number of questionnaires obtained after distribution.
A Structured Questionnaire will be used for data collection process. The questionnaire items will be validated to ascertain its suitability for use in data collection. The whole content of the questionnaire and its structure will critically be examined and corrections made where required and its reliability determined using a test –retest method.
Data collected will be edited upon the receipt of the questionnaires to ensure accuracy and consistency of the information given by the respondents. Data will be entered in the computer using a SPSS version 20, descriptive, principal component, correlation and regression analysis will be used to establish the relationship between the study variables. Responses from the questionnaire will be analysed using the descriptive statistics of frequency counts, percentage, and inferential statistics and descriptive statistics of frequency counts and percentages will also be used in analysing demographic variables and research questions.
For data analysis and presentation, the data collected will be edited and checked to ensure uniformity, accuracy, consistency and comprehensiveness. The structured questionnaires will be coded, questions grouped, tabulated and frequencies run according to the objectives of the study, the data will be analysed and the information presented using statistical frequency tables, graphs and pie – charts.
4.0. References
Aji, B.M. (2014). Leadership styles of head of department and academic staff performance: Unpublished Master Dissertation, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria.
Akinnibagbe . (2002). The relationship between leadership and follower in-role performance and satisfaction with the leader: The mediating effects of empowerment and trust in the leader. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 28,(1), 4-19.
Balunywa, W.S. . (2000). A hand Book of Business Management. Kampala: Ugandan Press. .
Fika, I. Ibi, M. and Aji, B. (2015). Leadership styles of head of department and academic staff performance in the University of Maiduguri: Maiduguri Journal of Education Studies, 8(1) 83-94.
Lee D. (1995). Leadership theory, application and skill development: USA: South- West College Publishing.
Lewin, K ; Caillords, f. (2001). Financing secondary education in development: strategic for sustainable growth: Paris International Institute for Education Planning. UNESCO.
Muli, M.M . (2005). Effects of Head Teachers Management Styles on Performance in Physics at K.S.C.E. Examination in Mutomo Division, Kitui District: Unpublished M. ed. Project, University of Nairobi.
Muthondu G.W. (2007). “Teachers’ Perception of Female Head Teachers’ Leadership Styles in Public Secondary School in Nairobi Province: Unpublished Master Dissertation, University of Nairobi. .
Mwalala D.B. . (2008). Influences of Head Teachers’ Leadership Styles on K.C.S.E Performance in Public Secondary School in Taita District: Unpublished Master Dissertation, University of Nairobi. .
Okumbe, J. A. (1998). Educational Management: Theory and Practice. Nairobi: Nairobi University Press.
Omolayo B. (2009). Effects of leadership styles on job related tension and psychological sense of community in work organization: case study of four organization in Lagos State, Nigeria: Bangladesh. E.J Social. 4,(2)133-157.
Sashkin, M. &Sashkin, M. . (2003). Leadership That Matters. San Francisco: BarrettKoehler Publishers Inc.