1.2 areas have received considerable research attention given human

1.2             
SCOPE OF WORK

In order to achieve
the determined objectives, the following steps need to be done accordingly.

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a)                 
The study area the Sungai Klang which is
situated within the state of Selangor and Kuala Lumpur and it ran through about
1288km² which covered a distance of 120km (Othman & Eldin, 2012). However
only two (2) points will be analysed which is the downstream and upstream

b)                 
Desk study will be done first to determine the
location points which should safe and easy to accessed to through Google Earth and site viewing.

c)                 
The sampling has been done at 2 points which
is the upstream and downstream. Each point will be taken twice which is during
the neap-tide and spring tide

d)                
Assessing the physical parameters of Sungai
Klang by using the available equipment in WRES Environmental Laboratory 1, FCE
to calculate the WQI.

e)                 
Analysing the content of Aluminium, Lead and
Zinc content in the water sample taken from the selected points.

f)                  
Analysing and discussing the obtained results
and compare it to the standards.

 

1.3             
LIMITATION

a)                 
Might not get the
best place to collect the water sample due to the conditions of the river

b)                 
The experiments and
analysing that will be done is limited to the equipment available

c)                 
The sampling and
in-situ analysis is limited to specific time which is high tide and low tide.

 

1.4             
SIGNIFICANCE OF  STUDY

Coastal areas are especially important to human well-being with half the
world’s population living within 60 km of the sea and three-quarters of all
large cities located in the coastal zone. Supporting and regulatory ecosystem
services in coastal areas have received considerable research attention given
human vulnerability to climate change, but cultural ecosystem services in the
coastal zone are less understood. Hence, water quality in the tidal area are
not well-maintained.

 

            Population growth and social
economic activities including industry, agriculture and aquaculture exacerbate
pressures on the environment by producing large quantities of wastewater that
contain metals, radionuclides, metalloids, as well as organic pollutants and
nutrients which will be trapped in the estuary area due to its geographical
properties which can sink and trap pollutants.

 

            However, human beings began to
realize and concern more on the quality of water as it is directly proportional
to public health (Othman & Eldin, 2012). Hence, when the water quality is
increased and maintained, there will be healthier environment. Good quality and
clean water may provide for recreational purposes and others such as
agricultural, transportation and many more.

CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

 

2.1             
INTRODUCTION

This chapter discussed on types of estuary, tidal
river and its possible contaminants based on its geographical properties.
Several contaminates which raised due to lithogenic and anthropogenic sources,
which will then influence the coastal and estuarine areas. All of these
population growth and also social economic activities may contribute to
surrounding water or river pollution (Khodami et al., 2017).

 

Over the years, human beings began to realize and
concerned more on the quality of water as it is directly proportional to public
health (Othman & Eldin, 2012). When the water quality is increased and
maintained, there will be healthier environment. Good quality and clean water
may provide for recreational purposes and others such as agricultural,
transportation and many more.  

 

 

2.2             
WATER
POLLUTION

According to
Department of Environment Malaysia, the deterioration of quality in coastal
water of Sungai Klang was caused by excessive amount of dumping of wastes into
upstream catchment activities, especially from housing and industrial areas, as
well as effluent from agricultural and urban areas. The coastal area of Klang
which is the downstream area received major impacts from activities and
developments which happened in the upstream catchments. The river is polluted
by industrial wastewaters, sewage discharges and land runoff, which are not
properly treated (Shaaban et al., 2008). In addition to the upstream sources,
there are also direct discharges of surface runoff, domestic sewage, ship
wastes and industrial discharges into coastal waters. Other than that, the
aquaculture also contributes to the flow of pollutants into the coastal areas
of Sungai Klang.

 

As said by the
Department of Environment Malaysia, the major sources of water pollution comes
from domestic sewage, land clearings and development, livestock farms and a
minimal amount from agro-based and manufacturing industries. These effluents
will then contaminate the water supplies which is the river and eventually,
contaminated seafood from the river pose risks to human health. Hence, will
lead to increment of infrastructure and health care costs.

The breeding and
also quality of fish and shellfish in the water is related to water pollution.
It also affects fishermen, indigenous communities and individuals who depend on
these areas as sources of livelihood, and directly affecting the economic
resources of the country. Hence, due to all of these factors and threat of
Sungai Klang, it is no longer pleasing to the eyes also emitted foul smell
which also may affect the tourism in the area.

 

 

2.3             
DEFINITION
OF TIDE

The most reliable phenomena in the world are tides
because the ocean waters never fail to regularly rise and fall along the shores
as the sun rises and the start come out. It is basically a long-period wave
that are moving through the oceans due to the forces of the moon and also sun
(Brown & Hausner, 2017). It is also originally comes from the ocean and
continues to move toward the coastline and estuaries which is what displayed as
rise and fall of the sea surface. It was recently found by Cerveny et al.,
(2010) the influence of lunar tidal on the river streamflow and it showed by
the lunar tidal influence on precipitation. Their study showed the lunar tidal
influence on inland rivers only at a monthly scale, but the lunar influence
also have a semidiurnal periodicity, best known for oceanic waters.

 

2.3.1    Classification
of Tides

One of the tides that exists is diurnal tide cycle
which will have one high tide and one low tide every lunar day which is
illustrated in Figure 2.2. It can be found in the Gulf of Mexico (Brown &
Hausner, 2017).           

1.2             
SCOPE OF WORK

In order to achieve
the determined objectives, the following steps need to be done accordingly.

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For You For Only $13.90/page!


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a)                 
The study area the Sungai Klang which is
situated within the state of Selangor and Kuala Lumpur and it ran through about
1288km² which covered a distance of 120km (Othman & Eldin, 2012). However
only two (2) points will be analysed which is the downstream and upstream

b)                 
Desk study will be done first to determine the
location points which should safe and easy to accessed to through Google Earth and site viewing.

c)                 
The sampling has been done at 2 points which
is the upstream and downstream. Each point will be taken twice which is during
the neap-tide and spring tide

d)                
Assessing the physical parameters of Sungai
Klang by using the available equipment in WRES Environmental Laboratory 1, FCE
to calculate the WQI.

e)                 
Analysing the content of Aluminium, Lead and
Zinc content in the water sample taken from the selected points.

f)                  
Analysing and discussing the obtained results
and compare it to the standards.

 

1.3             
LIMITATION

a)                 
Might not get the
best place to collect the water sample due to the conditions of the river

b)                 
The experiments and
analysing that will be done is limited to the equipment available

c)                 
The sampling and
in-situ analysis is limited to specific time which is high tide and low tide.

 

1.4             
SIGNIFICANCE OF  STUDY

Coastal areas are especially important to human well-being with half the
world’s population living within 60 km of the sea and three-quarters of all
large cities located in the coastal zone. Supporting and regulatory ecosystem
services in coastal areas have received considerable research attention given
human vulnerability to climate change, but cultural ecosystem services in the
coastal zone are less understood. Hence, water quality in the tidal area are
not well-maintained.

 

            Population growth and social
economic activities including industry, agriculture and aquaculture exacerbate
pressures on the environment by producing large quantities of wastewater that
contain metals, radionuclides, metalloids, as well as organic pollutants and
nutrients which will be trapped in the estuary area due to its geographical
properties which can sink and trap pollutants.

 

            However, human beings began to
realize and concern more on the quality of water as it is directly proportional
to public health (Othman & Eldin, 2012). Hence, when the water quality is
increased and maintained, there will be healthier environment. Good quality and
clean water may provide for recreational purposes and others such as
agricultural, transportation and many more.

CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

 

2.1             
INTRODUCTION

This chapter discussed on types of estuary, tidal
river and its possible contaminants based on its geographical properties.
Several contaminates which raised due to lithogenic and anthropogenic sources,
which will then influence the coastal and estuarine areas. All of these
population growth and also social economic activities may contribute to
surrounding water or river pollution (Khodami et al., 2017).

 

Over the years, human beings began to realize and
concerned more on the quality of water as it is directly proportional to public
health (Othman & Eldin, 2012). When the water quality is increased and
maintained, there will be healthier environment. Good quality and clean water
may provide for recreational purposes and others such as agricultural,
transportation and many more.  

 

 

2.2             
WATER
POLLUTION

According to
Department of Environment Malaysia, the deterioration of quality in coastal
water of Sungai Klang was caused by excessive amount of dumping of wastes into
upstream catchment activities, especially from housing and industrial areas, as
well as effluent from agricultural and urban areas. The coastal area of Klang
which is the downstream area received major impacts from activities and
developments which happened in the upstream catchments. The river is polluted
by industrial wastewaters, sewage discharges and land runoff, which are not
properly treated (Shaaban et al., 2008). In addition to the upstream sources,
there are also direct discharges of surface runoff, domestic sewage, ship
wastes and industrial discharges into coastal waters. Other than that, the
aquaculture also contributes to the flow of pollutants into the coastal areas
of Sungai Klang.

 

As said by the
Department of Environment Malaysia, the major sources of water pollution comes
from domestic sewage, land clearings and development, livestock farms and a
minimal amount from agro-based and manufacturing industries. These effluents
will then contaminate the water supplies which is the river and eventually,
contaminated seafood from the river pose risks to human health. Hence, will
lead to increment of infrastructure and health care costs.

The breeding and
also quality of fish and shellfish in the water is related to water pollution.
It also affects fishermen, indigenous communities and individuals who depend on
these areas as sources of livelihood, and directly affecting the economic
resources of the country. Hence, due to all of these factors and threat of
Sungai Klang, it is no longer pleasing to the eyes also emitted foul smell
which also may affect the tourism in the area.

 

 

2.3             
DEFINITION
OF TIDE

The most reliable phenomena in the world are tides
because the ocean waters never fail to regularly rise and fall along the shores
as the sun rises and the start come out. It is basically a long-period wave
that are moving through the oceans due to the forces of the moon and also sun
(Brown & Hausner, 2017). It is also originally comes from the ocean and
continues to move toward the coastline and estuaries which is what displayed as
rise and fall of the sea surface. It was recently found by Cerveny et al.,
(2010) the influence of lunar tidal on the river streamflow and it showed by
the lunar tidal influence on precipitation. Their study showed the lunar tidal
influence on inland rivers only at a monthly scale, but the lunar influence
also have a semidiurnal periodicity, best known for oceanic waters.

 

2.3.1    Classification
of Tides

One of the tides that exists is diurnal tide cycle
which will have one high tide and one low tide every lunar day which is
illustrated in Figure 2.2. It can be found in the Gulf of Mexico (Brown &
Hausner, 2017).           

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