1.0 cake residues and non-legume seeds. The usage

1.0 ABSTRACT: For this proposal, we will conduct an experiment regards of meat analogue using tempeh. This research will focus on the sensory analysis of attributes and food processing and development. Generally, tempeh is made of soybeans (Glycine max) that undergo fermentation process by the fungi as starter. But there are varieties of tempeh, which can be classified into 5 different types depend on the ingredient used which are legumes, grains and soy, grains, press cake residues and non-legume seeds. The usage of main ingredient for tempeh may be vary to each other and may have their own distinguish attribute. Thus, the main ingredient will be manipulated variables as result may different from others. The purpose of this experiment is to discover which type of tempeh will have the highest level of meat imitation by using sensory analysis as analysis method. 2.0 PROBLEM STATEMENT: There are people that cannot consume meat although they want due to allergy, and will not consume meat because they are vegetarians. So, they cannot enjoy the taste savouriness of meat. Apart from that, tempeh has been used around the worlds as meat analogue. There are many types of tempeh, one of them made using legumes and non-legumes seed. The usage of different type of tempeh may yield various sensory attributes such as texture, taste, appearance and odour. In this experiment, main ingredient to make tempeh will become manipulated variables to analyse which one has the highest level of imitation for meat in sensory attributes such as texture, taste, appearance and odour.        3.0 RESEARCH QUESTION:- What are the sensory attributes of the patty that use vegan ingredient?- What are the level of imitation of the patty using vegan ingredient with meat patty?- What are the acceptance comparison of meat patty with vegan patty? 4.0 RESEARCH OBJECTIVE:- To study the attributes of the patty that use vegan ingredient.- To identify the level of imitation of the patty using vegan ingredient.- To compare acceptance of meat patty with vegan patty. 5.0 HYPOTHESIS:H0: There is significant different in term of sensory attributes of taste, colour, texture and aroma express from the each type of tempeh with different ingredient.H1: There is no significant different in term of sensory attributes of taste, colour, texture and aroma express from the each type of tempeh with different ingredient.        6.0 LITERATURE REVIEW:6.1 MEAT ANALOGUE: A meat analogue, also called a meat substitute, mock meat, faux meat or imitation meat, approximates certain aesthetic qualities and chemical characteristics of specific types of meat.( Joshi, VK; Kumar, Satish)( Meat analogues: Plant based alternatives to meat products – a review, International Journal of Food and Fermentation Technology, Volume 5 Issue 2 (Dec 2015). Generally, meat analogue also known as a food that made from non-meat ingredients, sometimes with other animal products, such as dairy and egg. The reason that existing the market for the meat limitation usage by the vegetarian and vegans that trying to avoid meat consumption due to health, ethical or religious obligatory dietary laws especially in Hinduism, Buddhism and Judaism. In order to get protein source other than meat, meat analogue was introduced. The first and popular meat analogue, tofu was discovered and invented in Chine by the Han dynasty (206 BC-220 AD). Drawing about production of tofu discovered in a Han dynasty tomb. Meat consumption has been discouraged and sale of tofu has been promoted. Doufu (the Chinese name for tofu) also referred as ‘mock lamb chops’ or ‘the vice mayor’s mutton.’ (Translated by H.T. Huang, PhD, July 2002). Nowadays, people are trying to find the substitute for meat especially burger patty with vegetable sources. Lot of people noticed that when they eat meat product, they feel watery sensation in their mouth. Scientist has identified that the taste specifically come from meat product and categorized it as fifth taste which is called umami. Umami has been translated from Japanese word that give mean yummy, deliciousness or a pleasant savoury taste. Some people are unlucky enough to enjoy this sensation due to certain reason. People that do not eat meat does not mean they did not love the taste of meat. Some other food source also share same properties that give natural umami taste other than meat for instance mushrooms, eggplant, beans and legumes.    6.2 TRADITIONAL INDONESIAN STAPLE SOURCE OF PROTEIN: According to P. Dinesh Babu from Department of Biotechnology, Anna University, Tiruchirapalli – 620 024, Tamilnadu, India, in the article A Low Cost Nutritious Food ” Tempeh” state that tempeh is a fermented product made from that have been soaked and cooked to soften them. Tempeh production requires a starter to ferment the cooked beans. The mixture is left for 24 hours. Because it is firm and it can be formed into a patty, it can be used as a meat analogue in what the West is typically called as “mock” or sandwiches, stated by R. Bhakyaraj and R. Vidhyalakshmi in the same previous article. Tempeh is originated from Indonesia as traditional soy product. It is popular on the island of Java, where it is a main source of protein. The earliest known reference to it as “tempeh” appeared in 1815 in the Serat Centhini. Three detailed, fully documented histories of tempeh, worldwide, have been written, all by Shurtleff and Aoyagi (1985, 1989, and 2001) in their books; History of Tempeh and Tempeh Products (1815-2011): Extensively Annotated Bibliography and Sourcebook. 6.3 QUANTITATIVE DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS (QDA): Descriptive analysis is the most sophisticated of the methodologies available to the sensory professional. It is used to determine the nature and intensity of the differences (profiling and quality tests). The type of descriptive test that will be used is quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA). It is a time-consuming and complex method but has broad application such as description of complex products, comparison of products with identification and qualification of their differences, explanation of consumers’ preferences, and correlation with instrumental measures. Hence, QDA is widely used in product development, quality assurance, shelf life testing, cost optimization and market survey. Result can be related to instrumental, chemical, or physical properties of the products. The setup of QDA method requires several steps, which are; 1) select and train the panellists, 2) generate the descriptive terminologies, 3) prepare the questionnaire and the glossary, 4) create an experimental design taking, 5) organise the evaluation, 6) analyse the results. 7.0 METHODOLOGY:7.1 BASIC INGREDIENT:To conduct this experiment, a few ingredient need to prepared. Raw ingredient such as soy beans, chickpeas, black bean and tempeh starter can be obtained at Pasar Semarak, Nilai. While daily cooking ingredients such as minced meat, sodium tripolyphospate, texturized vegetable protein (TVP), fine dry bread crumbs, garlic powder, salt and ground black pepper can easily obtained at Giant Supermarket, Nilai and Tesco Supermarket, Nilai. 7.2 FERMENTATION OF TEMPEH:Tempeh will be prepared from scratch at the microbial laboratory. Main ingredient will be manipulated variables, which are soy beans, black beans and chickpeas. The beans will be boiled just to tender it. Then, dry the beans with towel or tissue. Then, mix well the beans with starter. After that, put the beans into the plastic bag. Make sure to punch the holes using needle adequately. Incubate the beans at 88°F for 24 to 48 hours. If the temperature is not warm enough, the tempeh spores may not grow and may get unwanted bacteria and if too hot, the spores may die. In 24-48 hours, tempeh can be refrigerated when the beans have become a single mass that held together by the white spores. Retrieve the tempeh after 48 hours to prevent overgrowth. The procedure will be repeated using different beans.       7.3 PREPARATION OF PATTY:The preparation will be conducted in the food processing laboratory. First of all, mix the minced meat and salt in food processor for 5 minutes. Then, add cold water to the mixture and continue to blend. Add all other ingredients such as sodium tripolyphospate, texturized vegetable protein (TVP), fine dry bread crumbs, garlic powder, and ground black pepper and continue blend. Shape the patty first before grill for about 5-7 minutes on each side or until done. The process will be repeated using minced tempeh from each type of beans used. 7.4 SENSORY EVALUATION:Sensory evaluation will be conducted at the sensory laboratory that provide booth to panellist and preparation room for preparing the sample. Method will be used is Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA). 60 trained panellist will be participate the evaluation. Panellist will receive 4 samples of patties, which are patties made from soy bean tempeh, black bean tempeh, chickpea tempeh and meat itself. Meat patty will become standard reference, R. Panellist need to evaluate 5 given attributes which are colour, texture, aroma, taste and overall. Small piece of bread will be provided as carrier for patty. The samples will be given three digits code with its permutation and questionnaire as given next page:


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