1.0. Nanotechnology is used to produce nanomaterials. Nanomaterials

1.0. Introduction

1.1. Nanomaterials

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Nanotechnology
is one
of the
interesting fields
for the
researchers that
have been
growing
rapidly throughout
the world
in the
past years.
Nanotechnology is
used to
produce nanomaterials.
Nanomaterials have
numerous properties
as compared
to their
bulk material
because of
their small
size which
is much
smaller than
living cells,
they are
suitable for
bioapplication (Runowski
et al.,
2014). The
unique properties
of nanomaterial
due to
which it
is used
in biorelated
areas such
as, biomedical
markers in
vivo and
vitro in
bioimaging, drud
delivery and
cancer therapy
(Bunzli et
al.,
2010).

Nanomaterials
have good
electronic, optical
and catalytic
properties and
having high
surface energy
and chemical
reactivity which
received much
attention. The
catalytic and
conductive properties
of nanomaterial
by employing
the electrode
surface to
increase the
sensitivity of
molecular imprinting
electrochemical sensors,
enhance the
electron transfer
and catalyzing
the reactions.
Molecularly imprinted
polymer having
specific recognition
sites are
prepared for
the specific
target molecule.
Incorporating nanomaterials
on the
MIPs is
essential because
nanomaterials increase
the sensitivity,
improve the
response signal
and decrease
the detection
limit of
the sensors
(Zhong et
al.,
2018).

1.2. Molecularly imprinted polymer (MIPs)

Molecular imprinting technology is a dominant technique for producing specific cavities in polymers matrix. The resultant polymer with specific cavities/binding sites are known as MIPs. MIPs are formed by the polymerization of a functional monomers using an initiator, cross-linker, initiator and a template. The removal of template create binding sites of functional and same size to the template (Javidi et al., 2015). MIPs is a highly crossed linked polymer able to selective molecular recognition. For successive molecular recognition it is necessary that the functional monomer can interact with the template until a stable template-monomer complex is formed (Vasapollo et al., 2011, Bolisay et al.,2010). Different characteristics are shown by the binding sites which depend on the interactions that are formed during polymerization (Vasapollo et al., 2011). The common method for the formation of monomer-template complex as covalent bonding or noncovalent interaction. A large numbers of template are used such as, ion, atom, molecule, complex and even microorganism the functional monomers formed complex with the

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